Skip to main content

Volume 50 Supplement 3

Special Issue: The PLANET-B Misson and Related Science

The Ion Mass Imager on the Planet-B spacecraft

Abstract

The Ion Mass Imager (IMI) is a light-weight ion mass composition instrument for the Japanese Planet-B mission to be launched to Mars in 1998. The objective of the Planet-B mission is to study the Martian environment with emphasis on the upper atmosphere interaction with the solar wind. IMI measures positive ions with energies between 10 eV/q and 35 keV/q and with a mass resolution high enough to resolve the most important ion species (H+, He++, He+, O++, O+, O2+). The instrument has a 360° field-of-view aperture and uses the spacecraft spin to cover almost the full unit sphere to obtain three-dimensional distribution functions every 4 s (half a spacecraft spin period). Particles are energy-filtered by a spherical electrostatic analyzer, and then mass-analysed by the magnetic separation method. The ions hit a microchannel plate assembly with a position sensitive anode divided into 32 mass channels. Together with 16 angular sectors, this system “images” the direction of motion and mass of ions. A pre-acceleration voltage of 0–4000 V is used to select the mass range, e.g., modes optimized for light ions (up to O+) and heavy ions (O+ to charged dust grains). A loss-less data compression algorithm is used in the in-flight processing software to optimize the amount of data that can be returned from Mars.

References

  1. Barabash, S. and R. Lundin, On a possible dust-plasma interaction at Mars, ISEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 22, 2, 173–178, 1994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Barabash, S., E. Dubinin, N. Pissarenko, R. Lundin, and C. T. Russell, Picked-up protons near Mars: Phobos observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 1805–1808, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Barabash, S., R. Lundin, and O. Norberg, Upstream regions at Mars, in Plasma Environments of Non-Magnetized Planets, edited by T. I. Gombosi, pp. 285–290, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Barabash, S., E. Kallio, R. Lundin, and H. Koskinen, Measurements of nonthermal helium escape from Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 21,307–21,316, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. CCSDS, Source Coding for Data Compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, CCSDS 111.0-W-2, Washington, D.C., March 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Dolginov, Sh. Sh., Ye. G. Yeroshenko, and L. N. Zhuzgov, The magnetic field of Mars according to data from the Mars 3 and Mars 5, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 3353–3362, 1976.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Dubinin, E., R. Lundin, N. Pissarenko, S. Barabash, A. Zakharov, H. Koskinen, K. Schwingenschuh, and Y. Yeroshenko, Indirect evidences for a gas/dust torus along the Phobos orbit, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 861–864, 1990.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dubinin, E., R. Lundin, H. Koskinen, and N. Pissarenko, Ion acceleration in the Martian tail: PHOBOS observations, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 3991–3997, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Dubinin, E. M., K. Sauer, R. Lundin, O. Norberg, K. Schwingenshuh, M. Delva, and W. Riedler, Plasma characteristics of the boundary layer of the Martian magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 27061–27075, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Eliasson, L., O. Norberg, R. Lundin, K. Lundin, S. Olsen, H. Borg, M. André, H. Koskinen, P. Riihelä, M. Boehm, and B. Whalen, The Freja hot plasma experiment—Instrument and first results, Space Sci. Rev., 70, 563–576, 1994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Gringauz, K. I., V. V. Bezrukikh, M. I. Vergin, and A. P. Rezimnov, On the electron and ion components of plasma in the antisolar part of near-Martian space, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 3349–3352, 1976.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Intriligator, D. S. and E. J. Smith, Mars in the solar wind, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 8427–8435, 1979.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Ip, W.-H., On the oxygen corona of Mars, Icarus, 76, 135–145, 1988.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Ip, W.-H., T. K. Breus, and T. Zarnowiecki, Termination of the solar wind proton flow due to charge exchange effect near Mars, in Plasma Environments of Non-Magnetized Planets, edited by T. I. Gombosi, pp. 291–294, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Lundin, R. and E. M. Dubinin, Phobos-2 results on the ionospheric plasma escape from Mars, Adv. Space. Res., 12, 9, 255–263, 1992.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Lundin, R., A. Zakharov, R. Pellinen, B. Hultqvist, H. Borg, E. M. Dubinin, S. Barabasj, N. Pissarenko, H. Koskinen, and I. Liede, First results of the ionospheric plasma escape from Mars, Nature, 341, 609–612, 1989a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Lundin, R., B. Hultqvist, S. Olsen, R. Pellinen, I. Liede, A. Zakharov, E. Dubinin, and N. Pissarenko, The ASPERA experiment of the Soviet phobos spacecraft, in Solar System Physics, edited by J. H. Waite, Jr., J. Burch, and T. E. More, pp. 417–424, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1989b.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  18. Lundin, R., A. Zakharov, R. Pellinen, B. Hultqvist, H. Borg, E. M. Dubinin, S. Barabasj, N. Pissarenko, H. Koskinen, and I. Liede, Plasma composition measurements of the Martian magnetosphere morphology, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 877–880, 1990.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Lundin, R., E. Dubinin, S. Barabash, and O. Norberg, ASPERA observations of Martian magnetospheric boundaries, in Plasma Environments of Non-Magnetized Planets, edited by T. I. Gombosi, pp. 311–320, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Riedler, W., et al., Magnetic fields near Mars: First results, Nature, 341, 604–607, 1989.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Vaisberg, O. L., Mars—Plasma environment, in Physics of Solar Planetary Environment, Vol. 2, edited by D. J. Williams, pp. 854–871, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Vaisberg, O. and V. Smirnov, The Martian magnetotail, Adv. Space Res., 6, 301–314, 1986.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Yamauchi, M., S. Olsen, H. Borg, O. Norberg, M. Hirahara, R. Lundin, and K. Lundin, Report on the Calibration of the IMI Instrument for Planet-B, IRF Technical Report, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden, 1998 (in press).

    Google Scholar 

  24. Yeroshenko, Ye., W. Riedler, K. Schwingenschuh, J. G. Luhmann, M. Ong, and C. T. Russell, The magnetotail of Mars: PHOBOS observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 885–888, 1990.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to O. Norberg.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Norberg, O., Yamauchi, M., Lundin, R. et al. The Ion Mass Imager on the Planet-B spacecraft. Earth Planet Sp 50, 199–205 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352104

Download citation

Keywords

  • Solar Wind
  • Dusty Plasma
  • Spacecraft Spin
  • Target Data Rate
  • Data Compression Scheme