Skip to main content


We’d like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest.

Wave observations at the foreshock boundary in the near-Mars space


Wave and plasma measurements carried out by the Phobos-2 spacecraft in the Martian environment indicate that a part of solar wind electrons and ions are reflected and accelerated at the Martian bow shock. These particles streaming back into the solar wind lead to the formation of the foreshock region upstream the planetary bow shock. It is shown that the general structure of the foreshock at Mars is similar to that of the foreshock region upstream the Earth’s bow shock. However, the electric emissions observed at frequencies around 100 Hz at the leading edge of electron foreshock at Mars have been never reported for observations in the similar region at Earth. The burst of these waves occurs before the spacecraft enters the electron foreshock identified with the onset of electron plasma waves and calculations of the magnetic connection to the planetary bow shock.


  1. Barabash, S. and R. Lundin, Reflected ions near Mars, Phobos-2 observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 787–790, 1991.

  2. Delva, M. and E. Dubinin, Upstream ULF fluctuations near Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 317–326, 1998.

  3. Dubinin, E., D. Obod, A. Pedersen, and R. Grard, Mass-loading asymmetry in the upstream region near Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2769–2772, 1994.

  4. Dubinin, E., D. Obod, R. Lundin, K. Schwingenschuh, and R. Grard, Some features of the Martian bow shock, Adv. Space Res., 15, 8(9) 423–431, 1995.

  5. Dubinin, E., A. Skalsky, K. Szego, and K. Schwingenschuh, The electron foreshock boundary at Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1998 (to be submitted).

  6. Grard, R., A. Pedersen, S. Klimov, S. Savin, A. Skalsky, J.-G. Trotignon, and C. Kennel, First measurements of plasma waves near Mars, Nature, 341, 607–609, 1989a.

  7. Grard, R., D. Klinge, S. Klimov, S. Savin, and J.-G. Trotignon, The plasma wave system on PHOBOS, J. Phys. E Sci. Instrument, 22, 888, 1989b.

  8. Grard, R., C. Nairn, A. Pedersen, S. Klimov, S. Savin, A. Skalsky, and J. -G. Trotignon, Plasma and waves around Mars, Planet. Space Sci., 39, 89–98, 1991.

  9. Greenstadt, E., G. Le, and R. Strangeway, ULF waves in the foreshock, Adv. Space Res., 15, 8 (9) 71, 1995.

  10. Kiraly, P., R. Loch, K. Szego, I. Szemerey, I. T. Szucs, M. Tatrallyay, N. Shutte, A. Dyachkov, K. Gringauz, S. Sheronova, and M. Verigin, The HARP plasma experiment on-board the Phobos-2 spacecraft: preliminary results, Planet. Space Sci., 39, 139–145, 1991.

  11. Neubauer, F. M., H. Beinroth, H. Barnstorf, and G. Dehmel, Initial results from the Helios 1 search coil magnetometer experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 599–605, 1977.

  12. Russell, C., J. G. Lumann, K. Schwingenschuh, W. Riedler, and Ye. Yeroshenko, Upstream waves at Mars: Phobos observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 897–900, 1990.

  13. Skalsky, A., R. Grard, C. M. C. Nairn, S. Klimov, J.-G. Trotignon, and K. Schwingenshuh, The Martian bow shock: wave observations in the upstream region, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 2927–2933, 1992.

  14. Skalsky, A., R. Grard, P. Kiraly, S. Klimov, V. Kopanyi, K. Schwingenschuh, and J.-G. Trotignon, Simultaneous plasma wave and electron flux observations upstream of the Martian bow shock, Planet. Space Sci., 41, 183–188, 1993.

  15. Tarasov, V., E. Dubinin, S. Perraut, K. Sauer, and A. Skalsky, Wavelet application to the magnetic field turbulence in the upstream of the Martian bow shock, Earth Planets Space, 50, 1998 (in press).

  16. Trotignon, J.-G., M. Hamelin, R. Grard, A. Pedresen, S. Klimov, S. Savin, A. Skalsky, and C. Kennel, A comparison between the Earth’s and Mars’ bow shocks detected by the PHOBOS PLASMA-WAVE system, Planet. Space Sci., 39, 99–112, 1991.

  17. Tsurutani, B. and P. Rodriguez, Upstream waves and particles: An overview of ISEE results, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 4319–4324, 1981.

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Skalsky.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Skalsky, A., Dubinin, E., Delva, M. et al. Wave observations at the foreshock boundary in the near-Mars space. Earth Planet Sp 50, 439–444 (1998).

Download citation


  • Solar Wind
  • Wave Observation
  • Electron Plasma Wave
  • Foreshock Region
  • Spacecraft Location