Skip to main content

Characteristics of geomagnetic sudden commencement observed in middle and low latitudes

An Erratum to this article was published on 06 June 2014

Abstract

Characteristics of geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC) observed in middle and low latitudes are discussed on the basis of data analyses of magnetic variations and a numerical calculation. From the data analyses, it is found that a negative impulse is usually superposed on the main impulse of SC in H component just after its onset, at the stations in middle to high latitudes in the local time range from the morning to the early afternoon. The superposition of the negative impulse causes the decrease of SC amplitude in H component with increasing latitude in this area. The occurrence of the negative impulse does not seem to be dependent on geomagnetic activity. Examining a case study and a numerical analysis, it is suggested that this negative impulse is a signature of the magnetic variation due to the polar-originated ionospheric current system responsible for the main impulse of SC (DPMI). The discussion includes the possible interpretation of PPI introduced by Kikuchi and Araki (1985) and the availability of D component magnetic data in middle latitude forarough estimationof the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling process.

References

  • Araki, T., Global structure of geomagnetic sudden commencements, Planet. Space Sci., 25, 373–384, 1977.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Araki, T., A physical model of the geomagnetic sudden commencement, in Solar Wind Sources of Magnetispheric Ultra-Low-Frequency Waves, edited by M. J. Engebreston, K. Takahashi, and M. Scholer, pp. 183–200, Geophysical Monograph 81, 1994.

  • Araki, T., S. Fujitani, M. Emoto, K. Yumoto, K. Shiokawa, T. Ichinose, H. Luehr, D. Orr, D. K. Milling, H. Singer, G. Rostoker, S. Tsunomura, Y. Yamada, and C. F. Liu, Anomalous sudden commencement on March 24, 1991, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 14075–14086, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blake, J., W. A. Kolasinski, R. W. Fillus, and E. G. Mullen, Injection of electrons and protons with energies of tens of MeV into L < 3 on 24 March 1991, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 821–824, 1992.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Itonaga, M., K. Matsuzono, T.-I. Kitamura, I. Toshimitsu, N. B. Trivedi, R. Horita, T. Watanabe, and J. Riddick, Global structure of low-latitude and equatorial geomagnetic pulsations associated with sudden commencements, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 47, 441–457, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Iyemori, T. and S. Tsunomura, Characteristics of the association between an SC and a substorm onset, Mem. NIPR Special Issue, No. 26, 139–148, 1983.

  • Kamide, Y. and S. Matsushita, Simulation studies of ionospheric electric fields and currents in relation to field-aligned currents 1. Quiet periods, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 4083–4098, 1979a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kamide, Y. and S. Matsushita, Simulation studies of ionospheric electric fields and currents in relation to field-aligned currents 2. Substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 4099–4115, 1979b.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kikuchi, T., Evidence of transmission of polar electric fields to the low latitude at times of geomagnetic sudden commencements, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 3101–3105, 1986.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kikuchi, T. and T. Araki, Horizontal transmission of the polar electric field to the equator, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 41, 927–936, 1979.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kikuchi, T. and T. Araki, Preliminary positive impulse of geomagnetic sudden commencement observed at dayside middle and low latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 12195–12200, 1985.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kikuchi, T., T. Ishimine, and H. Sugiuchi, Local time distribution of HF Doppler frequency deviations associated with storm sudden commencements, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 4389–4393, 1985.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kokubun, S., R. L. McPherron, and C. T. Russel, Triggering of substorms by solar wind discontinuities, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 74–86, 1977.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petrinec, S. M., K. Yumoto, H. Lühr, D. Orr, D. Milling, K. Hayashi, S. Kokubun, and T. Araki, The CME event of February 21, 1994: Response of the magnetic field at the Earth’s surface, J. Geomag. Geoelectr, 48, 1341–1379, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reiff, P. H., Models of auroral-zone conductances, in Magnetospheric Currents, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., Vol. 28, edited by T. A. Potemra, pp. 180–191, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1984.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Rikitake, T. and S. Sato, The geomagnetic Dstfield of the magnetic storm on June 18–19, 1936, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst, Univ. Tokyo, 35, 7–21, 1957.

    Google Scholar 

  • Russell, C. T. and M. Ginskey, Sudden impulses at subauroral latitudes: Response for northward interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 23695–23702, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Russell, C. T., M. Ginskey, and S. M. Petrinec, Sudden impulses at low-latitude stations: Steady state response for northward interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 253–261, 1994a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Russell, C. T, M. Ginskey, and S. M. Petrinec, Sudden impulses at low latitude stations: Steady state response for southward interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 13403–13408, 1994b.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sastri, J. H., J. V. S. V. Rao, and K. B. Ramesh, Penetration of polar electric fields to the nightside dip equator at times of geomagnetic sudden commencements, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 17517–17523, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sitar, R. J., C. R. Clauer, and E. Friis-Christensen, High-latitude ground-based response to sudden changes in solar wind dynamic pressure, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 27001–27013, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sugiura, M. and S. Chapman, The average morphology of geomagnetic storms with sudden commencements, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Göttingen, Math.-phys., Kl., Sonderheft, Spec. Issue 4, 53 pp., 1960.

  • Tsunomura, S., On the polarity of SSC and SI observed in low latitudes, Mem. Kakioka Mag. Obs., 26, 15–36, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tsunomura, S. and T. Araki, Numerical analysis of equatorial enhancement of geomagnetic sudden commencement, Planet. Space Sci., 32, 599–604, 1984.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yamada, Y, M. Takeda, and T. Araki, Occurrence characteristics of the preliminary impulse of geomagnetic sudden commencement detected at middle and low latitudes, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 49, 1001–1012, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yumoto, K., Y. Tanaka, T. Oguchi, K. Shiokawa, Y. Yoshimura, A. Isono, B. J. Fraser, F. W. Menk, J. W. Lynn, M. Seto, and 210° MM Magnetic Observation Group, Globally coordinated magnetic observations along 210° magnetic meridian during STEP period: 1. Preliminary results of low latitude Pc3’s, J. Geomag. Geoelectr, 44, 261–276, 1992.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yumoto, K., H. Osaki, K. Fukao, K. Shiokawa, Y. Tanaka, S. I. Solovyev, G. Krymskij, E. F. Vershinin, V. F. Osinin, and 210° MM Magnetic Observation Group, Correlation of high- and low-latitude Pi2 magnetic pulsations observed at 210° magnetic meridian chain stations, J. Geomag. Geoelectr, 46, 925–935, 1994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yumoto, K. and the 210° MM Magnetic Observation Group, Initial results from the 210° magnetic meridian project—Review, J. Geomag. Geoelectr, 47, 1197–1213, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yumoto, K. and the 210° MM Magnetic Observation Group, The STEP 210° magnetic meridian network project, J. Geomag. Geoelectr, 48, 1297–1309, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Satoru Tsunomura.

Additional information

An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/BF03352211.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tsunomura, S. Characteristics of geomagnetic sudden commencement observed in middle and low latitudes. Earth Planet Sp 50, 755–772 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352168

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352168

Keywords

  • Solar Wind
  • Geomagnetic Storm
  • Middle Latitude
  • Sudden Commencement
  • Negative Impulse