Skip to main content

Effects of seamounts on an interplate earthquake at the Suruga trough, Japan

Abstract

Detailed magnetic surveys carried out in the Suruga trough area, where the Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath Japan, revealed some local magnetic anomalies on the overriding plate side. We first show that these anomalies reflect seamounts sitting on and subducting with the Philippine Sea plate, since no magnetic sources corresponding to the anomalies are identified in the seafloor topography. An important issue to be addressed is how these seamounts affect the generation of a great interplate earthquake at the Suruga trough (often referred to as the Tokai earthquake). So we made a numerical simulation of earthquake generation, applying the rate- and state-variable friction law to the plate interface. Here we incorporated the seamounts in the simulation as an additional normal stress exerted locally to the interface. We then found how the seamounts affect the generation of an interplate earthquake depends on whether or not they are located in the seismogenic zone. The most notable effect is that the amount of slip immediately before the main shock, often called a pre-slip, tends to be enhanced if they are located inside the zone.

References

  1. Ben-Zion, Y. and J. R. Rice, Slip patterns and earthquake populations along different classes of faults in elastic solids, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 12,959–12,983, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Blanpied, M. L., D. A. Lockner, and J. D. Byerlee, Fault stability inferred from granite sliding experiments at hydrothermal conditions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 609–612, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Cloos, M. and R. L. Shreve, Shear-zone thickness and the seismicity of Chilean- and Marianas-type subduction zones, Geology, 24, 107–110, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Dieterich, J. H., Modeling of rock friction 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 2161–2168, 1979a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Dieterich, J. H., Modeling of rock friction 2. Simulation of preseismic slip, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 2169–2175, 1979b.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Dieterich, J. H., Constitutive properties of faults with simulated gouge, in Mechanical Behavior of Crustal Rocks, edited by N. L. Carter, M. Freidman, J. M. Logan, and D. W. Sterns, pp. 103–120, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Honkura, Y., Y. Okubo, K. Nagaya, M. Makino, and S. Oshima, A magnetic anomaly map in the Japanese region with special reference to tectonic implications, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 43, 71–76, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Ishibashi, K., Specification of a soon-to-occur seismic faulting in the Tokai district, central Japan, based upon seismotectonics, in Earthquake Prediction; an International Review, edited by D. Simpson and P. Richard, pp. 297–332, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Kato, N. and T. Hirasawa, Effects of strain rate and strength nonuniformity on the slip nucleation process: a numerical experiment, Tectonophysics, 265, 299–311, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Kato, N. and T. Hirasawa, A numerical study on seismic coupling along subduction zones using a laboratory-derived friction law, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, 102, 51–68, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Lay, T. and H. Kanamori, An asperity model of great earthquake sequencies, in Earthquake Prediction; International Review, edited by D. Simpson and P. Richard, pp. 579–592, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Le Pichon, X., S. Lallemant, H. Tokuyama, F. Thoué, P. Huchon, and P. Henry, Structure and evolution of the backstop in the eastern Nankai Trough area (Japan): implications forthe soon-to-come Tokai earthquake, The Island Arc, 5, 440–454, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Matsumura, S., Focal zone of a future Tokai earthquake inferred from the seismicity pattern around the plate interface, Tectonophysics, 273, 271–291, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Molnar, P. and P. Tapponier, Cenozoic tectonics of Asia, effects of a continental collision, Science, 189, 419–428, 1975.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Molnar, P., P. England, and J. Martinod, Mantle dynamics, uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, and the Indian monsoon, Rev. Geophys., 31, 357–396, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Rice, J. R., Spatio-temporal complexity of slip on a fault, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 9885–9907, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Ruina, A. L., Slip instability and state variable friction laws, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 10,359–10,370, 1983.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Scholz, C. H., Earthquakes and friction laws, Nature, 391, 37–42, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Scholz, C. H. and J. Campos, On the mechanism of seismic decoupling and back arc spreading at subduction zones, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 22,103–22,115, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Scholz, C. H. and C. Small, The effect of seamount subduction on seismic coupling, Geology, 25, 487–490, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Seno, T., The instantaneous rotation vector of the Philippine Sea plate relative to the Eurasian plate, Tectonophysics, 42, 209–226, 1977.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Stuart, W. D., Forecast model for great earthquakes at the Nankai trough subduction zone, Pure Appl. Geophys., 126, 619–641, 1988.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Tse, S.T and J. R. Rice, Crustal earthquake instability in relation to the depth variation of frictional slip properties, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 9452–9472, 1986.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Turcotte, D. and G. Schubert, Geodynamics: Applications of Continuum Physics to Geological Problems, 450 pp., John Wiley, New York, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Yoshioka, S., T. Yabuki, T. Sagiya, T. Tada, and M. Matsu’ura, Interplate coupling and relative plate motion in the Tokai district, central Japan, deduced from geodetic data inversion using ABIC, Geophys. J. Int., 113, 607–621, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yoshimori Honkura.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Honkura, Y., Nagaya, Y. & Kuroki, H. Effects of seamounts on an interplate earthquake at the Suruga trough, Japan. Earth Planet Sp 51, 449–454 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352249

Download citation

Keywords

  • Magnetic Anomaly
  • Recurrence Interval
  • Seismogenic Zone
  • Plate Interface
  • Nankai Trough