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Performance test of an automated moment tensor determination system for the future “Tokai” earthquake

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Abstract

We have investigated how the automated moment tensor determination (AMTD) system using the FREESIA/KIBAN broadband network is likely to behave during a future large earthquake. Because we do not have enough experience with a large (M > 8) nearby earthquake, we computed synthetic waveforms for such an event by assuming the geometrical configuration of the anticipated Tokai earthquake and several fault rupture scenarios. Using this synthetic data set, we examined the behavior of the AMTD system to learn how to prepare for such an event. For our synthetic Tokai event data we assume its focal mechanism, fault dimension, and scalar seismic moment. We also assume a circular rupture propagation with constant rupture velocity and dislocation rise time. Both uniform and heterogeneous slip models are tested. The results show that performance depends on both the hypocentral location (i.e. unilateral vs. bilateral) and the degree of heterogeneity of slip. In the tests that we have performed the rupture directivity appears to be more important than slip heterogeneity. We find that for such large earthquakes it is necessary to use stations at distances greater than 600 km and frequencies between 0.005 to 0.02 Hz to maintain a point-source assumption and to recover the full scalar seismic moment and radiation pattern. In order to confirm the result of the synthetic test, we have analyzed the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki (MJ7.8) and the 1995 Kobe (MJ7.2) earthquakes by using observed broadband waveforms. For the Kobe earthquake we successfully recovered the moment tensor by using the routinely used frequency band (0.01–0.05 Hz displacements). However, we failed to estimate a correct solution for the Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake by using the same routine frequency band. In this case, we had to use the frequencies between 0.005 to 0.02 Hz to recover the moment tensor, confirming the validity of the synthetic test result for the Tokai earthquake.

References

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  5. Fukuyama, E., M. Ishida, D. S. Dreger, and H. Kawai, Automated seismic moment tensor determination by using on-line broadband seismic waveforms, Zisin, 51, 149–156, 1998.

  6. Fukuyama, E., M. Ishida, H. Horiuchi, H. Inoue, S. Hori, S. Sekiguchi, H. Kawai, and H. Murakami, NIED seismic moment tensor catalogue January 1998–December 1998, Technical Note of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, 193, 1–35, 1999.

  7. Ishibashi, K., Specification of a soon-to-occur seismic faulting in the Tokai district, central Japan, based upon seismotectonics, in Earthquake Prediction, Maurice Ewing Ser. 4, edited by D. W. Simpson and P. G. Richards, pp. 297–332, American Geophysical Union, Washington D. C., 1981.

  8. Kawakatsu, H., Automated near-realtime CMT inversion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2569–2572, 1995.

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  10. Kuge, K., J. Zhang, and M. Kikuchi, The 12 July 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki, Japan, earthquake: Effects of source complexity on surface wave radiation, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 86, 505–518, 1996.

  11. Matsumura, S., Focal zone of a future Tokai earthquake inferred from the seismicity pattern around the plate interface, Tectonophys., 273, 271–291, 1997.

  12. Mendoza, C. and E. Fukuyama, The July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki, Japan, earthquake: Coseismic slip pattern from strong-motion and teleseismic recordings, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 791–801, 1996.

  13. Sagiya, T., Interplate coupling in the Tokai district, central Japan, deduced from continuous GPS data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2315–2318, 1999.

  14. Saikia, C. K., Modified frequency-wavenumber algorithm for regional seismograms using Filon’s quadrature: Modeling of Lg waves in eastern North America, Geophys. J. Int., 118, 142–158, 1994.

  15. Sipkin, S. A., Estimation of earthquake source parameters by the inversion of waveform data: synthetic waveforms, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 30, 242–259, 1982.

  16. Yoshida, S., K. Koketsu, B. Shibazaki, T. Sagiya, T. Kato, and Y. Yoshida, Joint inversion of near- and far-field waveforms and geodetic data for the rupture process of the 1995 Kobe earthquake, J. Phys. Earth, 44, 437–454, 1996.

  17. Yoshioka, S., T. Yabuki, T. Sagiya, T. Tada, and M. Matsu’ura, Interplate coupling and relative plate motion in the Tokai district, central Japan, deduced from geodetic data inversion using ABIC, Geophys. J. Int., 113, 607–621, 1993.

  18. Dreger, D. S. and D. V. Helmberger, Broadband modeling of local earthquakes, Bull. Seismol. Soc.Am., 80, 1162–1179, 1990.

  19. Dreger, D. S. and D. V. Helmberger, Source parameters of the Sierra Madre earthquake from regional and local body waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 2015–2018, 1991.

  20. Dziewonski, A. M., T.-A. Chou, and J. H. Woodhouse, Determination of earthquake source parameters from waveform data for studies of global and regional seismicity, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 2825–2852, 1981.

  21. Fukuyama, E., M. Ishida, S. Hori, S. Sekiguchi, and S. Watada, Broadband seismic observation conducted under the FREESIA Project, Rep. Nat’l Res. Inst. Earth Sci. Disas. Prev., 57, 23–31, 1996.

  22. Fukuyama, E., M. Ishida, D. S. Dreger, and H. Kawai, Automated seismic moment tensor determination by using on-line broadband seismic waveforms, Zisin, 51, 149–156, 1998.

  23. Fukuyama, E., M. Ishida, H. Horiuchi, H. Inoue, S. Hori, S. Sekiguchi, H. Kawai, and H. Murakami, NIED seismic moment tensor catalogue January 1998–December 1998, Technical Note of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, 193, 1–35, 1999.

  24. Ishibashi, K., Specification of a soon-to-occur seismic faulting in the Tokai district, central Japan, based upon seismotectonics, in Earthquake Prediction, Maurice Ewing Ser. 4, edited by D. W. Simpson and P. G. Richards, pp. 297–332, American Geophysical Union, Washington D. C., 1981.

  25. Kawakatsu, H., Automated near-realtime CMT inversion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2569–2572, 1995.

  26. Kikuchi, M. and H. Kanamori, Rupture process of the Kobe, Japan, earthquake of Jan. 17, 1995, determined from teleseismic body waves, J. Phys. Earth, 44, 429–436, 1997.

  27. Kuge, K., J. Zhang, and M. Kikuchi, The 12 July 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki, Japan, earthquake: Effects of source complexity on surface wave radiation, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 86, 505–518, 1996.

  28. Matsumura, S., Focal zone of a future Tokai earthquake inferred from the seismicity pattern around the plate interface, Tectonophys., 273, 271–291, 1997.

  29. Mendoza, C. and E. Fukuyama, The July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki, Japan, earthquake: Coseismic slip pattern from strong-motion and teleseismic recordings, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 791–801, 1996.

  30. Sagiya, T., Interplate coupling in the Tokai district, central Japan, deduced from continuous GPS data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2315–2318, 1999.

  31. Saikia, C. K., Modified frequency-wavenumber algorithm for regional seismograms using Filon’s quadrature: Modeling of Lg waves in eastern North America, Geophys. J. Int., 118, 142–158, 1994.

  32. Sipkin, S. A., Estimation of earthquake source parameters by the inversion of waveform data: synthetic waveforms, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 30, 242–259, 1982.

  33. Yoshida, S., K. Koketsu, B. Shibazaki, T. Sagiya, T. Kato, and Y. Yoshida, Joint inversion of near- and far-field waveforms and geodetic data for the rupture process of the 1995 Kobe earthquake, J. Phys. Earth, 44, 437–454, 1996.

  34. Yoshioka, S., T. Yabuki, T. Sagiya, T. Tada, and M. Matsu’ura, Interplate coupling and relative plate motion in the Tokai district, central Japan, deduced from geodetic data inversion using ABIC, Geophys. J. Int., 113, 607–621, 1993.

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Correspondence to Eiichi Fukuyama.

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Fukuyama, E., Dreger, D.S. Performance test of an automated moment tensor determination system for the future “Tokai” earthquake. Earth Planet Sp 52, 383–392 (2000) doi:10.1186/BF03352250

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Keywords

  • Focal Mechanism
  • Moment Tensor
  • Kobe Earthquake
  • Synthetic Waveform
  • Seismic Moment Tensor