- Open Access
Geodetically observed surface displacements of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake
Earth, Planets and Space volume 52, pages403–413(2000)
The 21 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake of magnitude MW = 7.6 (ML = 7.3) severely deformed the Earth’s crust in the central Taiwan region. The earthquake created an 85-km-long surface rupture along the Chelungpu fault. The epicenter was located at 23.85°N, 120.81°E, near the southern end of the rupture zone. Three-dimensional displacements of 285 geodetic control stations were determined in this study from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations collected before and after the earthquake. The detailed surface displacement field shows that individual stations are vertically uplifted by up to 4 m and displaced horizontally by up to 9 m, with the largest displacement occurring near the northern end of the ruptured thrust fault. The azimuth of the surface displacement field is approximately parallel to the direction of tectonic convergence of the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. The maximum three-dimensional displacement of 9.9 m is among the largest fault movements ever measured for modern earthquakes.
Beutler, G., I. Bauersima, B. Botton, W. Gurtner, M. Rothacher, and T. Schildknecht, Accuracy and biases in the geodetic application of the Global Positioning System, Manuscr. Geod., 14, 28–35, 1989.
Beutler, G., E. Brockmann, S. Fankhauser, W. Gurtner, J. Johnson, L. Mervart, M. Rothacher, S. Schaer, T. Springer, and R. Weber, Bernese GPS Software Version 4.0, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland, 1996.
Beutler, M. Rothacher, S. Schaer, T. Springer, J. Kouba, and R. E. Neilan, The international GPS service (IGS): an interdisciplinary service in support of earth sciences, Adv. Space Res., 23, 631–653, 1999.
Boucher, C., Z. Altamimi, M. Feissel, and P. Sillard, Results and analysis of the ITRF94, IERS Technical Note 20, 206 pp., Observatoire de Paris, Paris, France, 1996.
Cheng, S.-N, Y.-T. Yeh, M.-T. Hsu, and T.-C. Shih, Photo album of ten disastrous earthquakes in Taiwan, CWB-9-1999-002-9, Central Weather Bureau and the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, R.O.C., 289 pp., 1999.
DeMets, C., R. G. Gordon, D. F. Argus, and S. Stein, Current plate motions, Geophys. J. Int., 101, 425–478, 1990.
Goad, C. C. and L. Goodman, A modified Hopfield tropospheric refraction correction model, Fall Annual Meeting of the Amer. Geophys. U., San Francisco, CA, U.S.A., Dec. 12–17, 1974.
Goad, C. C. and M. Yang, A new approach to precision airborne GPS positioning for photogrammetry, Photogrammetric Eng. & Remote Sensing, 63, 1067–1077, 1997.
Goad, C. C., D. A. G.-Brzezinska, and M. Yang, Determination of high-precision GPS orbits using triple differencing technique, J. Geod., 70, 655–662, 1996.
Kuang, D., B. E. Schutz, and M. M. Watkins, On the structure of geometric positioning in GPS measurements, J. Geod., 71, 35–43, 1996.
Ma, K.-F., C.-T. Lee, and Y.-B. Tsai, The Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake: large surface displacements on an island thrust fault, Eos Trans. AGU, 80, 608–611, 1999.
Neilan, R. E., J. F. Zumberge, G. Beutler, and J. Kouba, The international GPS service: a global resource for GPS applications and research, in Proc. ION GPS-97, Sept. 16–19, Kansas City, MO, U.S.A., pp. 883–889, 1997.
Seno, T., S. Stein, and A. E. Gripp, A model for the motion of the Philippine Sea Plate consistent with NUVEL-1 and geological data, J. Geophys. Res., 98(B10), 17,941–17,948, 1993.
Yang, M. and C. F. Lo, Real-time kinematic GPS positioning for centimeter level ocean surface monitoring, Proc. Natl. Sci. Counc. ROC(A), 24, 79–85, 2000.
Yang, M., C.-L. Tseng, J.-Y. Yu, and K.-H. Chen, Adjustment and accuracy analysis of Taiwan first-order GPS control network, J. Cadastral Surv., 18(2), 1–27, 1999 (in Chinese).
Yu, S.-B., H.-Y. Chen, and L.-C. Kuo, Velocity field of GPS stations in the Taiwan area, Tectonophys., 274, 41–59, 1997.
Yu, S.-B., L.-C. Kuo, R. S. Punongbayan, and E. G. Ramos, GPS observation of crustal deformation in the Taiwan-Luzon region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 923–926, 1999.
About this article
Cite this article
Yang, M., Rau, R., Yu, J. et al. Geodetically observed surface displacements of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake. Earth Planet Sp 52, 403–413 (2000) doi:10.1186/BF03352252
- Global Position System
- Surface Displacement
- Global Position System Data
- Global Position System Orbit
- Global Position System Station