- Open Access
Seafloor positioning system with GPS-acoustic link for crustal dynamics observation—a preliminary result from experiments in the sea—
Earth, Planets and Space volume 52, pages 415–423 (2000)
Many active plate boundaries, such as mid-ocean ridges and trenches, are under the sea. Seafloor crustal deformation data will contribute significantly to understanding the nature of the tectonic processes at these plate boundaries. We have developed a seafloor positioning system with a GPS-acoustic link. This system consists of two main components; (1) the surface positioning by differential GPS to on-land reference and (2) the precise acoustic ranging using the M-sequence between the surface and seafloor references. The position and attitude of the surface GPS-acoustic link unit are determined from the GPS observations. Simultaneously, the acoustic ranging between the surface unit and seafloor references are carried out. The positions of the seafloor references are determined from these observations and a sound-speed structure model of the seawater. We performed preliminary seafloor positioning experiments. In these experiments, simple 1-D structure models are assumed for the sound-speed in the sea. The results show that the positions of the seafloor references are estimated with an accuracy on order of 10 cm. The residuals for acoustic ranging imply that there are systematic differences between the assumed and real sound-speed structure. It is necessary to reduce the uncertainties of sound-speed structures for more accurate positioning.
Anderson, G., S. Constable, H. Staudigel, and F. K. Wyatt, A seafloor long-baseline tiltmeter, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 20,269–20,285, 1997.
Ando, M., Source mechanisms and tectonic significance of historical earthquakes along the Nankai Trough, Japan, Tectonophys., 27, 119–140, 1975.
Del Grosso, V. A., New equation for the speed of sound in natural waters (with comparisons to other equations), J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 56, 1084–1091, 1974.
Fujimoto, H., T. Kanazawa, and H. Murakami, Experiment on precise seafloor acoustic ranging—a promising result of observation—, J. Seism. Soc. Jpn., 48, 289–292, 1995 (in Japanese).
Fujimoto, H., T. Kanazawa, and H. Murakami, Seafloor acoustic ranging and the effect of temperature variation, in Gravity, Geoid and Marine Geodesy International Symposium, Vol. 117 of International Association of Geodesy Symposia, edited by J. Segawa, H. Fujimoto, and S. Okubo, pp. 690–695, Springer, 1996.
Fukuda, Y, Improvements of a geoid model around Japan, Monthly Earth, 16, 611–616, 1994 (in Japanese).
Geographical Survey Institute, Results of the continuous GPS observation all over Japan, Report of the Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction, 56, 651–654, 1996 (in Japanese).
Heki, K., S. Miyazaki, and H. Tsuji, Silent fault slip following an interplate thrust earthquake at the Japan Trench, Nature, 386, 595–598, 1997.
Kasahara, J., H. Utada, T. Sato, and H. Kinoshita, Submarine cable OBS using a retired submarine telecommunication cable; GeO-TOC program, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 108, 113–127, 1998.
Mackenzie, K. V., Nine-term equation for sound speed in the oceans, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 70, 807–812, 1981.
Momma, H., Y. Shirasaki, and J. Kasahara, The VENUS project—instrumentation and underwater work system, in Proceedings of International Workshop on Scientific Use of Submarine Cables, pp. 103–108, 1997.
Nagaya, Y., Basic study on a sea floor strain measurement using acoustic techniques, Report of Hydrographic Researches, 31, 67–76, 1995 (in Japanese with English abstracts).
Obana, K., Development of seafloor positioning system with GPS-acoustic link for crustal dynamics observation, Ph.D. thesis, Kyoto University, 99 pp., 1998.
Obana, K., H. Katao, and M. Ando, Sea-floor positioning with global positioning system-acoustic link system, the Island Arc, 8, 245–258, 1999.
Purcell, G. H., Jr., L. E. Young, S. K. Wolf, T. K. Meehan, C. B. Duncan, S. S. Fisher, F. N. Spiess, G. Austin, D. E. Boegman, C. D. Lowenstein, C. Rocken, and T. M. Kelecy, Accurate GPS measurement of the location and orientation of a floating platform, Mar. Geod., 14, 225–264, 1991.
Sakata, S., S. Shimada, and T. Hamatsuki, Development of the ocean bottom tiltmeter (1), J. Geod. Soc. Jpn., 27, 75–84, 1981 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Shimamura, H. and T. Kanazawa, Ocean bottom tiltmeter with acoustic data retrieval system implanted by a submersible, Mar. Geophys. Res., 9, 237–254, 1988.
Spiess, F. N. and J. A. Hildebrand, Employing geodesy to study temporal variability at a mid-ocean ridge, EOS, 76, 451,455, 1995.
Spiess, F. N., C. D. Chadwell, J. A. Hildebrand, L. E. Young, Jr., H. Dragert, Precise GPS/Acoustic positioning of seafloor reference points for tectonic studies, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 108, 101–112, 1998.
Takeuchi, T., A long-range and high-resolution underwater acoustic positioning system, Mar. Geod., 14, 225–231, 1991.
Yabuki, T., Y. Nagaya, A. Asada, F. Ono, and K. Tajiri, Development of a seafloor acoustic ranging system (SeaFAR): Preliminary results of long term trial experiment, JAMSTEC Journal of Deep Sea Research, Special Volume Deep Sea Research in Subduction Zones, Spreading Centers and Backarc Basins, 147–151, 1997.
About this article
Cite this article
Obana, K., Katao, H. & Ando, M. Seafloor positioning system with GPS-acoustic link for crustal dynamics observation—a preliminary result from experiments in the sea—. Earth Planet Sp 52, 415–423 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352253
- Surface Unit
- Acoustic Measurement
- Reference Unit
- Geoid Model
- Slow Slip