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Open Access

An extended weight model for GPS phase observations

Earth, Planets and Space201452:BF03352281

Received: 20 December 1999

Accepted: 9 July 2000

Published: 24 June 2014


Low elevation data may be included in the processing of small scale engineering GPS applications, in order to improve satellite geometry and reduce the required observation time. Careful weighting of the phase observations is needed then, because of increased noise and systematic errors. The measured carrier-to-noise-power-density ratio (C/N0) has proven to be an excellent tool for the estimation of the random errors of the phase observables. In this paper an extended weight model using robust estimation is presented, in particular the Danish Method. This model combines the information inherent in C/N0 and the residuals of the double differenced phase observations in order to model random errors and signal distortion effects.


Phase ErrorWeight ModelSignal DistortionPhase ObservationDouble Difference