Skip to main content

Volume 52 Supplement 10

Special Issue: Application of GPS and other space geodetic techniques to Earth Sciences (1)

Real-time deformation monitoring with GPS and Kalman Filter


The main purpose of this research is to develop a real-time GPS monitoring system with the aid of a Kalman Filter for use in an active tectonic region near Istanbul, and its surrounding region. Currently, an ongoing project exists, funded by the World Bank, that monitors deformation in Istanbul and the Marmara Region. Istanbul is one of the largest cities in the world, and is under possible earthquake threat. In order to set up a powerful control system, a surveying and estimation method was designed and the necessary software, called RT-MODS2 (Real-Time Monitoring Of Dynamic Systems 2), was developed. The software reads real-time input data from GPS receivers and performs deformation analyses with the help of the Kalman Filter. Some studies of filtering and deformation analysis were performed in order to detect failures and outliers, and to increase the reliability of the deformation analysis.


  1. Barka, A., The August 17 and November 12 1999 Earthquakes in the Eastern Marmara Sea Region, International Symposiumon the Kocaeli Earthquake, Istanbul, December 2–5, 1999.

  2. Bennet, R. A., B. P. Wernicke, and J. L. Davis, Continuous GPS measurements of contemporary deformation across the northern basin and range province, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(4), 1998.

  3. Bock, Y. and M. Bevis, Regional Permanent GPS Arrays. Trends and Prospects, International Symposium on GPS, Tsukuba, Japan, October 18–22, 1999.

  4. Cross, P. A., Advanced Least Squares Applied to Position-Fixing, North East London Working paper No. 6 Polytechnic, Department of Land Surveying, 1990.

  5. Grewal, M. S. and A. P. Andrews, Kalman Filtering Theory and Practice, 380 pp., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., H. Lichtenegger, and J. Collins, GPS Theory and Practice, 370 pp., 4th edition, Springer Verlag, Wien New York, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Ince, C. D., Real-time monitoring of Dynamic Systems with GPS and Kalman Filter, Ph.D. thesis, Istanbul Technical University, 154 pp., 1999 (in Turkish).

  8. Jin, X. X., Theory of Carrier Adjusted DGPS Positioning Approach and Some Experimental Results, Delft University Press, Netherlands, 164 pp., 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Kalman, R. E., A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems, Journal of Basic Engineering, 82D, 35–45, 1960.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Kalman, R. E. and R. S. Bucy, New results in linear filtering and prediction theory, Journal of Basic Engineering, 83D, 95–108, 1961.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Langley, R. B., NMEA 0183: AGPS Receiver Interface Standard, GPS World, 54–57, July 1995.

  12. Leick, A., GPS Satellite Surveying, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 584 pp., 1995.

  13. Maybeck, P. S., Stochastic Models, Estimation and Control Volume I, 423 pp., Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Salzmann, M., MDB: A Design Tool for Integrated Navigation Systems, Kinematic Systems in Geodesy, Surveying and Remote Sensing Symposium No. 107, Banff, Alberta, Canada, September 10–13, pp. 218–227, 1990.

  15. Teunissen, P. J. G., Some Aspects of Real-Time Validation Techniques for Use in Integrated Systems, Kinematic Systems in Geodesy, Surveying and Remote Sensing Symposium No. 107, Banff, Alberta, Canada, September 10–13, pp. 191–200, 1990.

  16. Teunissen, P. J. G. and M. A. Salzmann, Performance Analysis of Kalman Filters, Reports 88.2, Delft University of Technology, The Faculty of Geodesy, Mathematical and Physical Geodesy, Netherlands, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Tsai, C. and L. Kurz, An adaptive robustizing approach to Kalman Filtering, Automatica, 19, 279–288, 1983.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Cankut D. Ince.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ince, C.D., Sahin, M. Real-time deformation monitoring with GPS and Kalman Filter. Earth Planet Sp 52, 837–840 (2000).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Kalman Filter
  • Deformation Analysis
  • Marmara Region
  • NMEA
  • Powerful Control System