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  • Letter
  • Open Access

Local GPS tropospheric tomography

Earth, Planets and Space201452:BF03352308

  • Received: 31 December 1999
  • Accepted: 29 August 2000
  • Published:


A formulation of local GPS tropospheric tomography for determining 4-D distribution of refractivity in the troposphere is presented together with a preliminary analysis of local dense GPS campaign data. Dividing the modeling space up to a height of 10 km above GPS receivers into cells, the refractivity in each cell is estimated in a successive time window by a tomographic reconstruction method in a quite similar manner like the seismic velocity in each cell in Earth’s interior is estimated in seismic tomography. The basic data for tomography are GPS slant delays for respective pairs of station and satellite, which are the sum of postfit phase residual, hydrostatic and wet slant delay. On the other hand, the slant delay from a station to a satellite is expressed by the summation of the product of path length and refractivity in each cell along the ray path. In a given time window, we have numerous observed slant delays corresponding to different ray trajectories, and the refractivity in each cell can be estimated by discrete inversion and least squares methods. The observational equations are usually singular so that we use a damped least squares method popular in seismic tomography. An example of real data analysis is given for the 1995 Shigaraki GPS campaign data, which reveals the spatial and temporal change of refractivity corresponding to the passage of ‘cold front’.


  • Precise Point Position
  • Seismic Tomography
  • Tropospheric Zenith Delay
  • Precise Point Position
  • Zenith Delay