Skip to main content

Calibration of antenna-radome and monument-multipath effect of GEONET—Part 1: Measurement of phase characteristics


Severe, 10-cm level, elevation angle cutoff dependence of the height solution is detected in the analysis of sample baselines from GSI/GEONET (Geographical Survey Institute/GPS Earth Observation NETwork). It is inferred that station and monument specific differences in the radome and/or multipath environment are responsible for this effect, because it can be observed over short sample baselines for identical antennas mounted atop different monument types. Our test results show that both the radome and multipath from the metal plate at the top of the pillar affect the baseline solutions. A calibration experiment was carried out by observing short (<10 m) known baselines to obtain phase correction maps for the typical GEONET monuments. The antenna/monument phase centers of GEONET monument replicas with the same attachment and radomes but shortened in height, were determined relative to a tripod-mounted TRM29659.00 antenna. Phase maps were obtained with the BERNESE software for 6 typical combinations of 3 antenna types, 3 monument types, and 3 radome types commonly used in GEONET. We find monument/antenna specific phase differences up to 1 cm. These phase differences can result in more than 10-cm station height biases when tropospheric delay parameters are estimated, which is consistent with the height errors observed for GEONET.


  • Beutler, G., The role of GPS in space geodesy, in GPS for Geodesy, Chapter 16, 2nd edition, edited by P. J. G. Tenuissen and A. Kleusberg, pp. 626–650, Springer, 1998.

  • Beutler, G., W. Gurtner, M. Rothacher, U. Wild, and E. Frei, Relative static positioning with the Global Positioning System: Basic technical considerations, in Global Positioning System: An Overview, edited by Y. Bock and N. Leppard, International Association of Geodesy Symposium No. 102, ISBN 3-540-97266-8, pp. 1–23, 1989.

  • Elósegui, P., J. L. Davis, R. T. K. Jaldehag, J. M. Johansson, A. E. Niell, and I. I. Shapiro, Geodesy using the Global Positioning System: The effect of signal scattering on estimates of site position, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9921–9934, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hatanaka, Y., M. Sawada, A. Horita, M. Kusaka, J. M. Johnson, and C. Rocken, Calibration of antenna-radome and monument-multipath effect of GEONET—Part 2: Evaluation of the phase map by GEONET data, Earth Planets Space, 53, this issue, 23–30, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Imakiire, T., Y. Iimura, S. Saga, H. Morishita, A. Tsuchiya, F. Kudo, S. Ishikawa, and Y. Iwana, Results of phase characteristics measurements of GPS receiver antennas (2), J. Geod. Soc. Japan, 43, 79–90, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jaldehag, R. T. K., J. M. Johansson, B. O. Rönnäng, P. Elósegui, J. L. Davis, I. I. Shapiro, and A. E. Niell, Geodesy using the Swedish permanent GPS network: Effect of signal scattering on estimates of relative site positions, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 17841–17860, 1996a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jaldehag, R. T. K., J. M. Johansson, J. L. Davis, and P. Elósegue, Geodesy using the Swedish permanent GPS network: Effects of snow accumulation on estimation of site positions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1601–1604, 1996b.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johansson, J. M., T. R. Carlsson, P. O. J. Jarlemark, L. P. Gradinarsky, and G. Elgered, The atmospheric influence on the results from the Swedish GPS network, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 23, 107–112, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leick, A., GPS Satellite Surveying, 2nd edition, 560 pp., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mader, G., GPS Antenna Calibration at National Geodetic Survey, GPS Solutions, 3, 50–58, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meertens, C., C. Alber, J. Brown, C. Rocken, B. Stephens, R. Ware, M. Exner, and P. Kolesnikoff, Field and Anechoic Chamber test, Proceedings of IGS analysis Center Workshop, Silver Springs, MD, U.S.A., June1996, International GPS Service, pp. 107–118, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miyazaki, S., Y. Hatanaka, T. Sagiya, and T. Tada, The nationwide GPS array as an Earth observation system, Bull. Geogr. Surv. Inst., 44, 11–22, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rothacher, M. and L. Mervart (eds.), Documentation of the Bernese GPS Software Version 4.0, 418 pp., Astronomical Institute, University of Berne, 1996.

  • Rothacher, M., W. Gurtner, S. Schaer, R. Weber, W. Schluter, and H. O. Hase, Azimuth- and elevation-dependent phase center corrections for geodetic GPS antennas estimated from GPS calibration campaigns, in GPS trends in Precise Terrestrial, Airborne, and Spacebourne Applications, edited by G. Beutler, G. H. Hein, W. G. Melbourne, and G. Seeber, International Association of Geodesy Symposium No. 115, ISBN 3-540-60872-9, pp. 333–338, 1995a.

  • Rothacher, M., S. Schaer, L. Mervart, and G. Beutler, Determination of antenna phase center variations using GPS data, in IGS Workshop Proceedings on Special Topics and New Directions, edited by G. Gendt and G. Dick, pp. 77–92, GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam, Germany, May 15–18 1995, 1995b.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yuki Hatanaka.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hatanaka, Y., Sawada, M., Horita, A. et al. Calibration of antenna-radome and monument-multipath effect of GEONET—Part 1: Measurement of phase characteristics. Earth Planet Sp 53, 13–21 (2001).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Global Position System
  • Phase Characteristic
  • Antenna Type
  • Baseline Solution
  • Global Position System Antenna