Skip to main content

Calibration of antenna-radome and monument-multipath effect of GEONET—Part 2: Evaluation of the phase map by GEONET data

Abstract

Phase maps for GSI/GEONET (Geographical Survey Institute/GPS Earth Observation NETwork) monuments and antennas obtained in Hatanaka et al. (2001) are evaluated by applying them to the analysis of GEONET. We used the same strategy as the GEONET routine analysis except for the antenna phase model. The coordinate solutions change by more than 10 cm in height when we apply the new phase maps. A scale change of up to 20 ppb is also observed for one of the sub-networks. The height bias is not constant but changing daily and seasonably, which implies that seasonal variations in the GPS solution are related to mis-modeling of the phase characteristics and that other environmental or geometric factors are coupled to the phase mis-modeling. Two more checks are done by comparing tropospheric delay estimates, and by conducting elevation angle cut off tests. Both tests show dramatic improvement when the new phase maps are applied, as compared to applying the standard antenna phase maps. It is concluded from this experiment with almost 1000 GEONET sites, that monument/antenna specific phase characteristic calibrations are essential for any application of GPS to achieve the highest accuracy for Earth science applications.

References

  • Clark, T. A. and B. R. Schupler, What Are Phase-Center Variations and Why Should I Worry?, Proceedings of IGS analysis Center Workshop, Silver Springs, MD, U.S.A, June 1996, International GPS Service, pp. 107–118, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elósegui, P., J. L. Davis, R. T. K. Jaldehag, J. M. Johansson, A. E. Niell, and I. I. Shapiro, Geodesy using the Global Positioning System: The effect of signal scattering on estimates of site position, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9921–9934, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hatanaka, Y, M. Sawada, A. Horita, and M. Kusaka, Calibration of antenna-radome and monument-multipath effect of GEONET—Part 1: Measurement of phase characteristics, Earth Planets Space, 53, this issue, 13–21, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., H. Lichtenegger, and J. Collins, GPS Theory and Practice, 4th edition, pp. 389, Springer Wien New York, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jaldehag, R. T. K., J. M. Johansson, B. O. Ronnang, P. Elosegui, J. L. Davis, I.I. Shapiro, and A. E. Niell, Geodesy using the Swedish permanent GPS network: effect of signal scattering on estimates of relative site positions, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 17841–17860, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kuroishi, Y, Precise Gravimetric Determination of Geoid in the Vicinity of Japan, Bull. Geographical Survey Inst., 41, 1–93, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuroishi, Y, Gravity Field and Geoid for Japan, in International Association of Geodesy Symposia, Vol. 121, edited by Schwartz, pp. 149–154, Geodesy Beond 2000—The Challenges of the First Decade, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lemoine, F. G., D. E. Smith, L. Kunz, R. Smith, E. C. Pavlis, N. K. Pavlis, S. M. Klosko, D. S. Chinn, M. H. Torrence, R. G. Williamson, C. M. Cox, K. E. Rachlin, Y. M. Wang, S. C. Kenyon, R. Salman, R. Trimmer, R. H. Rapp, and R. S. Nere, The Development of the NASA GSFC and NIMA Joint Geopotential Model, in International Association of Geodesy Symposia, Vol. 117, edited by J. Segawa, H. Fujimoto, and S. Okubo, Gravity, Geoid and Marine Geodesy (1996 Tokyo), Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mader, G., GPS Antenna Calibration at National Geodetic Survey, GPS Solutions, 3, 50–58, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meertens, C., C. Alber, J. Brown, C. Rocken, B. Stephens, R. Ware, M. Exner, and P. Kolesnikoff, Field and Anechoic Chamber test, Proceedings of IGS analysis Center Workshop, Silver Springs, MD, U.S.A, June 1996, International GPS Service, pp. 107–118, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milbert, D., Improvement of a high resolution geoid height model in the United States by GPS height on NAVD88 benchmarks, IGeS Bulletin, N. 4, “New Geoidin the World”, 13–36, 1995.

  • Rocken, C, C. Meertens, B. Stephens, J. Braun, T. Van Hove, S. Perry, O. Ruud, M. MacCallum, and J. Richardson, UNAVCO Academic Research Infrastructure (ARI) Receiver and Antenna Test Report, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/University NAVSTAR Consortium (internal document), 1995.

  • Rothacher, M., S. Schaer, L. Mervart, and G. Beutler, Determination of Antenna Phase Center Variations Using GPS data, in IGS Workshop Proceedings on Special Topics and New Directions, edited by G. Gendt and G. Dick, pp. 77–92, GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam, Germany, May 15–18 1995, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yuki Hatanaka.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hatanaka, Y., Sawada, M., Horita, A. et al. Calibration of antenna-radome and monument-multipath effect of GEONET—Part 2: Evaluation of the phase map by GEONET data. Earth Planet Sp 53, 23–30 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352359

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352359

Keywords

  • Phase Characteristic
  • Double Difference
  • Tropospheric Delay
  • Antenna Phase
  • Geoid Model