- Open Access
Consequences of the neural network investigation for Dst-AL relationship
Earth, Planets and Space volume 53, pages 207–212 (2001)
Several recent studies have suggested that most of the Dst main phase variations and of the AL variations similarly respond to a certain type of solar wind condition although the processes are independent of each other. This similarity suggests that some consistency between the Dst main phase development and AL variations exists, regardless of the existence of causality. In what situations this consistent relationship really exists or collapses has been examined with the technique of an Elman recurrent neural network. The network was trained with the Dst and hourly averaged AL indices for 70 storm events from 1967 to 1981, and tested for nine storms that occurred in 1982. The result shows that the Dst-AL relationship can be categorized into two types: high correlative mapping for which 80% and more of the Dst peak in the main phase is reproduced by AL, and partially correlative mapping where only about a half of the Dst peak is reproduced. It is found that whether the correlation is high or partial is determined by whether the Dst main phase develops smoothly or with a discontinuity, i.e., for storms having a discontinuity in the main phase, the coherency collapses. The discontinuity in the Dst main phase is associated with the rapid southward IMF change after the northward excursion. We suggest that it is this IMF variation to which storms and/or substorms respond in a highly complex manner and that such a complex response can be associated with about a half of the maximum ring current intensity.
Akasofu, S.-I., Polar and Magnetospheric Substorms, 280 pp., D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht-Holland, 1968.
Burton, R. K., R. L. McPherron, and C. T. Russell, An empirical relationship between interplanetary conditions and Dst, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 4204–4214, 1975.
Clauer, C. R. and R. L. McPherron, The relative importance of the interplanetary electric field and magnetospheric substorms on the partial ring current development, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 6747–6759, 1980.
Clauer, C. R., R. L. McPherron, and C. Searls, Solar wind control of the low-latitude asymmetric magnetic disturbance field, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 2123–2130, 1983.
Daglis, I. A., S. Livi, E. T. Sarris, and B. Wilken, Energy density of ionospheric and solar wind origin ions in the near-Earth magnetotail during substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 5691–5703, 1994.
Elman, J. L., Finding structure in time, Cognitive Science, 14, 179–211, 1990.
Gleisner, H. and H. Lundstedt, Response of the auroral electrojets to the solar wind modeled with neural networks, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 14,269–14,278, 1997.
Hertz, J., A. Krogh, and R. G. Palmer, Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation, Lecture Notes vol. 1, Santa Fe Institute Studies in the sciences of complexity, Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, 1991.
Horton, W. and I. Doxas, A low-dimensional dynamical model for the solar wind driven geotail-ionosphere system, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 4561–4572, 1998.
Iyemori, T. and D. R. K. Rao, Decay of the Dst field of geomagnetic disturbance after substorm onset and its implication to the storm-substorm relation, Ann. Geophys., 14, 608–618, 1996.
Kamide, Y., Is substorm occurrence a necessary condition for a magnetic storm?, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 44, 109–117, 1992.
Kamide, Y. and N. Fukushima, Analysis of magnetic storms with DR-indices for equatorial ring current field, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan, 25, 125–162, 1971.
Kamide, Y., N. Yokoyama, W. Gonzalez, B. T. Tsurutani, I. A. Daglis, A. Brekke, and S. Matsuda, Two-step development of geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 6917–6921, 1998.
Klimas, A. J., D. Vassiliadis, and D. N. Baker, Dst index prediction using data-derived analogues of the magnetospheric dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 20,435–20,447, 1998.
Kokubun, S., Relationship of interplanetary magnetic field structure with development of substorm and storm main phase, Planet. Space Sci., 20, 1033–1049, 1972.
Kugblenu, S., S. Taguchi, and T. Okuzawa, Prediction of the geomagnetic storm associated Dst index using an artificial neural network algorithm, Earth Planets Space, 51, 307–313, 1999.
Lundstedt, H., AI techniques in geomagnetic storm forecasting, in Magnetic Storms, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 98, edited by B. T. Tsurutani, W. D. Gonzalez, Y. Kamide, and J. K. Arballo, pp. 243–252, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1997.
McPherron, R. L., The role of substorms in the generation of magnetic storms, in Magnetic Storms, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 98, edited by B. T. Tsurutani et al., pp. 131–148, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1997.
O’Brien, T. P. and R. L. McPherron, An empirical phase space analysis of ring current dynamics: Solar wind control of injection and decay, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 7707–7719, 2000.
Russell, C. T., R. L. McPherron, and R. K. Burton, On the cause of geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 1105–1109, 1974.
Shue, J.-H. and Y. Kamide, Effects of solar wind density on the westward electrojet, in Substorms-4, edited by S. Kokubun and Y. Kamide, pp. 677–680, Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo, and Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1998.
Srivastava B. J., Habiba Abbas, D. R. K. Rao, and B. M. Pathan, Extended main phase of some sudden commencement great geomagnetic storms with double SSCs, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 61, 993–1000, 1999.
Tsurutani, B. T., W. D. Gonzalez, F. Tang, S.-I. Akasofu, and E. J. Smith, Origin of interplanetary southward magnetic fields responsible for major magnetic storms near solar maximum (1978–1979), J. Geophys. Res., 93, 8519–8531, 1988.
Vassiliadis, D., A. J. Klimas, D. N. Baker, and D. A. Roberts, A description of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling based on nonlinear filters, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 3495–3512, 1995.
Wu, J.-G. and H. Lundstedt, Geomagnetic storm prediction from solar wind data with the use of dynamic neural networks, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 14,255–14,268, 1997.
Now at Ghana Telecom, Headquarters, Ghana.
About this article
Cite this article
Kugblenu, S., Taguchi, S. & Okuzawa, T. Consequences of the neural network investigation for Dst-AL relationship. Earth Planet Sp 53, 207–212 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352377
- Solar Wind
- Magnetic Storm
- Geomagnetic Storm
- Solar Wind Condition
- Storm Main Phase