Open Access

Characteristics of medium- and large-scale TIDs over Japan derived from OI 630-nm nightglow observation

Earth, Planets and Space201453:BF03352402

Received: 4 July 2000

Accepted: 19 March 2001

Published: 21 June 2014


A new optical instrument for studying upper atmospheric dynamics, called the Multicolor All-sky Imaging System (MAIS), has been developed. The MAIS can obtain all-sky images of airglow emission at two different wavelengths simultaneously with a time resolution of several minutes. Since December 1991, imaging observations with the MAIS have been conducted at the Zao observatory (38.09°N, 140.56°E). From these observations, two interesting events with wave structures have been detected in OI 630-nm nightglow images. The first event was observed on the night of June 2/3, 1992 during a geomagnetically quiet period. Simultaneous data of ionospheric parameters showed that they are caused by propagation of the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID). Phase velocity and horizontal wavelength determined from the image data are 45–100 m/s and 280 km, and the propagation direction is south-westward. The second event was observed on the night of February 27/28, 1992 during a geomagnetic storm. It is found that a large enhancement of OI 630-nm emission is caused by a propagation of the large-scale TID. Meridional components of phase velocities and wavelengths determined from ionospheric data are 305–695 m/s (southward) and 930–5250 km. The source of this large-scale TID appears to be auroral processes at high latitudes.