Skip to main content

Plasmaspheric electron content in the GPS ray paths over Japan under magnetically quiet conditions at high solar activity

Abstract

Vertical total electron content (GPS-TEC) data obtained from the dual-frequency GPS receiver network (GEONET) in Japan are compared with those calculated using the Sheffield University plasmasphere-ionosphere model (SUPIM). The model is also used to estimate the electron content in the plasmaspheric sections of GPS ray paths for the three seasons of high solar activity (F10.7 = 165) under magnetically quiet conditions. According to the estimates, the plasmaspheric sections of vertical GPS ray paths over Japan at altitudes above the O+ to H+ transition height and above the upper altitude (2500 km) of Faraday rotation contain up to 11 and 9 TEC units (1 TEC unit = 1016 electrons m−2) of free electrons, respectively. The free electrons present above the Faraday rotation altitude can cause propagation errors of up to 4.9 ns in time delay and 1.6 m in range at the GPS L1 (1.57542 GHz) frequency. The plasmaspheric electron content, PEC, changes appreciably with season and latitude and very little with the time of the day. However, the percentage contribution of PEC to GPS-TEC changes most significantly with the time of the day; the contribution varies from a minimum of about 12% during daytime at equinox to a maximum of about 60% at night in winter.

References

  • Bailey, G. J. and N. Balan, A low-latitude ionosphere-plasmasphere model, STEP Handbook, edited by R. W. Schunk, p. 173, Utah State University, 1996.

  • Bailey, G. J., N. Balan, and Y. Z. Su, The Sheffield University plasmasphere-ionosphere model—a review, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 59, 1541, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Balan, N. and G. J. Bailey, Equatorial plasma fountain and its effects: Possibility of an additional layer, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 21,421–21,431, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Balan, N., G. J. Bailey, and B. Jayachandran, Ionospheric evidence for a non-linear relationship between the solar EUV and 10.7 cm fluxes during an intense solar cycle, Planet. Space Sci., 41, 141–145, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Balan, N., G. J. Bailey, and R. J. Moffett, Modelling studies of ionospheric variations during an intense solar cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 17,467–17,475, 1994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Balan, N., Y. Otsuka, and S. Fukao, New aspects in the annual variations of the ionosphere observed by the MU radar, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 2287–2290, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Balan, N., Y. Otsuka, G. J. Bailey, and S. Fukao, Equinoctial asymmetries in the ionosphere and thermosphere observed by the MU radar, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 9481–9495, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carpenter, D. L. and C. G. Park, On what ionospheric workers should know about the plasmapause-plasmasphere, Rev. Geophys., 11, 133–154, 1973.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chi, P. J., C. T. Russell, S. Musman, W. K. Peterson, G. Le, V. Angelopoulos, G. D. Reeves, M. B. Moldwin, and F. K. Chun, Plasmaspheric depletion and refilling associated with the September 25, 1998 magnetic storm observed by ground magnetometers at L = 2, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 633–636, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davies, K., Recent progress in satellite radio beacon studies with particular emphasis on the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment, Space Sci. Rev., 25, 357, 1980.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Doherty, P. H., J. A. Klobuchar, G. J. Bailey, N. Balan, and M. W. Fox, Determinations of protonospheric electron content from TEC measurements from GPS and Faraday rotation and comparisons against the Sheffield plasmasphere model, Proceedings of the International Beacon Satellite Symposium, edited by M. C. Lee, pp. 118–121, Mass. Inst. of Technol., Cambridge, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Evans, J. V., Satellite beacon contributions to studies of the structure of the ionosphere, Rev. Geophys., 15, 325–350, 1977.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fejer, B. G., E. R. de Paula, S. A. Gonzales, and R. F. Woodman, Average vertical and zonal F region plasma drifts over Jicamarca, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 13,901, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gallagher, D. L., P. D. Craven, and R. H. Comfort, An empirical model of the Earth’s plasmasphere, Adv. Space Res., 8, 15–24, 1988.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hedin, A. E., MSIS-86 thermospheric model, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4649, 1987.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hedin, A. E. et al., Revised global model of thermosphere winds using satellite and ground-based observations, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 7657, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kersley, L. and J. A. Klobuchar, Comparison of protonospheric electron content measurements from the American and European sectors, Geophys. Res. Lett., 5, 123–126, 1978.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kersley, L., H. Hajeb-Hossienieh, and K. J. Edwards, Postgeomagnetic storm protonospheric replenishment, Nature, 271, 429–430, 1978.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kimura, I., K. Tsunehara, A. Hikuma, Y. Z. Su, Y. Kasahara, and H. Oya, Global electron density distribution in the plasmasphere deduced from Akebono wave data and the IRI model, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 59, 1569, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kimura, I., Y. Kasahara, and H. Oya, Determination of Global plasmaspheric electron density profile by tomographic approach using omega signals and ray tracing, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 2000 (in press).

  • Klobuchar, J. A., Ionospheric time-delay algorithm for single frequency GPS users, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., AES-23, 325–331, 1987.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lanyi, G. E. and T. Roth, A comparison of mapped and measured total electron content using Global Positioning System and beacon satellite observations, Radio Sci., 23, 483, 1988.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lunt, N., L. Kersley, and G. J. Bailey, The influence of the protonosphere on GPS observations: Model simulations, Radio Sci., 34, 725–732, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ogawa, T., K. Sinno, M. Fujita, and J. Awaka, Severe disturbances of VHF and GHz waves from geostationary satellites during a magnetic storm, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 42, 637–644, 1980.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oliver, W. L., M. Yamamoto, T. Takami, S. Fukao, M. Yamamoto, and T. Tsuda, Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar observations of ionospheric electric fields, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 11,615, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Otsuka, Y. et al., A new technique for mapping of total electron content using GPS network in Japan, Earth Planets Space, 54, this issue, 63–70, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richards, P. G. and D. G. Torr, Ratios of photoelectron to EUV ionization rates for aeronomic studies, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 4060, 1988.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rishbeth, H. and C. S. G. K. Setty, The F-layer at sunrise, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 20, 263, 1961.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saito, A., S. Fukao, and M. Miyazaki, High resolution mapping of TEC perturbations with the GSI GPS network over Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3079–3083, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Titheridge, J. E., Determination of ionospheric electron content from the Faraday rotation of geostationary satellite signals, Planet. Space. Sci., 20, 353, 1972.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Titheridge, J. E., The electron content of the southern mid-latitude ionosphere 1965–1971, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 35, 981, 1973.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tobiska, W. K., Revised solar extreme ultraviolet flux model, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 53, 1005, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to N. Balan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Balan, N., Otsuka, Y., Tsugawa, T. et al. Plasmaspheric electron content in the GPS ray paths over Japan under magnetically quiet conditions at high solar activity. Earth Planet Sp 54, 71–79 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352423

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352423

Keywords

  • Global Position System
  • Total Electron Content
  • Electron Content
  • Faraday Rotation
  • Vertical Total Electron Content