Skip to main content

Advertisement

You are viewing the new article page. Let us know what you think. Return to old version

Article | Open | Published:

Voltage measurements over the CAM-1 submarine cable between Madeira Island and Portugal mainland

Abstract

Data of electrical voltage measured between the ends of the CAM-1 cable, during fifteen months, have been analysed in order to determine the electrical stability of the cable and to obtain some preliminary information related to water transport. The monthly average of the potential measured during days with low geomagnetic activity suggests a periodicity of 120 days that was tentatively interpreted as having origin in water flow. These results show a small trend that is compatible with no drift in the cable. The mean electric field estimated from quiet days is 0.206 ± 0.022 mV/km. If the variations of this potential are attributable to ocean water transport a total water flow of ±0.09 cm/s is estimated. This value represents a maximum value for temporal variations of the spatially averaged water-flow velocity.

References

  1. Chave, A. D. and D. S. Luther, Low-frequency, motionally induced electromagnetic fields in the ocean, 1. Theory, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 7185–7200, 1990.

  2. Chave, A. D., D. S. Luther, L. J. Lanzerotti, and L. V. Medford, Geoelectric field measurements on a planetary scale: oceanographic and geophysical applications, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(13), 1411–1414, 1992.

  3. Flosadottir, A. H., J. C. Larsen, and J. T. Smith, The Relation of Seafloor Voltages to Ocean Transports in North Atlantic Circulation Models: Model Results and Practical Considerations for Transport Monitoring, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1547–1565, 1997.

  4. Fujii, I. and A. D. Chave, Motional induction effect on the planetary scale: geoelectric potential in the eastern North Pacific, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1343–1359, 1999.

  5. Fujii, I., L. J. Lanzerotti, H. Utada, H. Kinoshita, J. Kasahara, L. V. Medford, and C. G. Maclennan, Geoelectric power spectra over oceanic distances, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 421–424, 1995.

  6. Lanzerotti, L. J., L. V. Medford, C. G. Maclennan, D. J. Thomson, A. Meloni, and G. P. Gregori, Measurements of the large-scale direct-current Earth potential and possible implications for the geomagnetic dynamo, Science, 229, 47, 1985.

  7. Lanzerotti, L. J., C. H. Sayres, L. V. Medford, J. S. Kraus, and C. G. Maclennan, Earth potential over 4000 km between Hawaii and California, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(11), 1177–1180, 1992.

  8. Larsen, J. C. and T. B. Sanford, Florida current volume transports from voltage measurements, Science, 227, 302–304, 1985.

  9. Lizarralde, D., A. D. Chave, G. Hirth, and A. Schultz, Long period magnetotelluric study using Hawaii-to-California submarine cable data: implication for mantle conductivity, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 17837–17854, 1995.

  10. Meloni, A., L. J. Lanzerotti, and G. P. Gregori, Induction of currents in long submarine cables by natural phenomena, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 21, 795–803, 1983.

  11. Monteiro Santos, F. A., A. Soares, J. M. Miranda, L. A. Mendes-Victor, and ISO3D team, Preliminary electric field observations in the CAM-1 cable between Madeira and Lisboa, Geophys. Res. Abstracts, 1(1), 180, 1999.

  12. Monteiro Santos, F. A., A. Soares, A. Flosadottir, A. Junge, L. MacGregor, J. M. Miranda, R. Nolasco, and M. Sinha, Measurements of electric potential in CAM-1 cable, 2a Assembleia Luso Espanhola de Geodesia e Geofísica, Lagos, Portugal, 2000.

  13. Palshin, N. A., Oceanic electromagnetic studies: a review, Surveys in Geophysics, 17, 455–491, 1996.

  14. Palshin, N. A., L. L. Vanyan, R. D. Medzhitov, G. I. Shapiro, M. A. Evdoshenko, H. Utada, H. Shimizu, and Y. Tanaka, Use of the Nakhodka-Naoetsu Submarine Cable for Studying the Temporal Variability of the Integral Water Transport in the Sea of Japan, Oceanolgy, 41(3), 447–457, 2001.

  15. Sanford, T. B., Temperature transport and motional induction in the Florida Current, Journal of Marine Research, 40, 621–639, 1982.

  16. Sanford, T. B., Motionally-induced electric and magnetic fields in the sea, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 3476–3492, 1971.

  17. Spain, P. and T. B. Sanford, Accurately monitoring the Florida Current with motionally induced voltages, Journal of Marine Research, 45, 843–870, 1987.

  18. Vanyan, L. L., H. Utada, H. Shimizu, Y. Tanaka, N. A. Palshin, V. Stepanov, V. Kouznetsov, R. D. Medzhitov, and A. Nozdrina, Studies on the lithosphere and the water transport by using the Japan Sea Submarine Cable (JASC); 1, Theoretical considerations, Earth Planets Space, 50(1), 35–42, 1998.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Fernando A. Monteiro Santos.

Additional information

Other members of the ISO-3D: J. M. Miranda (CGUL), N. Lourenço and J. Luís (U. Algarve), A. Flosadottir (HALO), A. Junge (U. Frankfurt), M. Sinha, L. MacGregor, S. Dean, N. Barker, S. Riches and Z. Cheng (U. Cambridge/U. Southampton).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Keywords

  • Water Transport
  • Motional Induction
  • Geomagnetic Activity
  • Voltage Measurement
  • Submarine Cable