- Open Access
Error evaluation in acoustic positioning of a single transponder for seafloor crustal deformation measurements
Earth, Planets and Space volume 54, pages 871–881 (2002)
The observation of seafloor crustal deformation is very important to understand plate motions, nucleation processes and mechanisms of great interplate earthquakes as well as the activities of submarine volcanoes. We have been developing an observation system for seafloor crustal deformation. This system consists of two main components; (1) kinematic GPS positioning of an observation vessel and (2) accurate acoustic measurements of distances between a transponder attached on the side of the vessel (onboard station) and one located on the ocean bottom (seafloor station). In this study, we performed numerical simulations to estimate measurement errors with acoustic positioning assuming acoustic velocities in the sea water and the distribution of observation points around the single seafloor station. We found that the position of the seafloor station which we can obtain by analyzing travel-time data might have around 18-cm discrepancy with respect to its “true” position. Colombo et al. (2001) reported that the position of the vessel can be determined with about 10-cm error by kinematic GPS positioning. These results indicate that the system should be able to detect seafloor crustal deformation much larger than 28 cm, including pre-, co-, and post-seismic slips due to the large earthquakes at subduction zones, slow and silent earthquakes, etc. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of continuous observations with a nationwide geodetic observational network for seafloor crustal deformation.
Ando, M., Source mechanisms and tectonic significance of historical earthquakes along the Nankai trough, Japan, Tectonophysics, 27, 119–140, 1975.
Asada, A. and T. Yabuki, Progress in the long-term seafloor geodesy on the Kumano Trough, J. Geography, 110, 529–543, 2001 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Colombo, O. L., A. G. Evans, M. Ando, K. Tadokoro, K. Sato, and T. Yamada, Speeding up the estimation of floated ambiguities for sub-decimeter kinematic positioning at sea, Proc. ION GPS 2001, Salt Lake City, U.S.A., 2001.
Cummins, P. R., T. Hori, and Y. Kaneda, Splay fault and megathrust earthquake slip in the Nankai Trough, Earth Planets Space, 53, 243–248, 2001.
Del Grosso, V. A., New equation for the speed of sound in natural waters (with comparisons to other equations), J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 56, 1084–1091, 1974.
Dragert, H., K. Wang, and T. James, A silent slip event on the deeper Cascadia subduction interface, Science, 292, 1525–1528, 2001.
Fujimoto, H., T. Kanazawa, and H. Murakami, Experiment on precise seafloor acoustic ranging—A promising result of observation—, J. Seismol. Soc. Jpn., Ser. 2, 48, 289–292, 1995 (in Japanese).
Greenewalt, D. and C. M. Gordon, Short-term variability in the bottom boundary layer of the deep ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 4713–4716, 1978.
Heki, K., S. Miyazaki, and H. Tsuji, Silent fault slip following an interplate thrust earthquake at the Japan Trench, Nature, 386, 595–598, 1997.
Hirose, H., K. Hirahara, F. Kimata, N. Fujii, and S. Miyazaki, A slow thrust slip event following the two 1996 Hyuganada earthquakes beneath the Bungo Channel, southwest Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3237–3240, 1999.
Ito, T., S. Yoshioka, and S. Miyazaki, Interplate coupling in southwest Japan deduced from inversion analysis of GPS data, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 115, 17–34, 1999.
Kato, T. and M. Ando, Source mechanisms of the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankaido earthquakes: Spatial heterogeneity of rise times, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 2055–2058, 1997.
Kawasaki, I., Y. Asai, Y. Tamura, T. Sagiya, N. Mikami, Y. Okada, M. Sakata, and M. Kasahara, The 1992 Sanriku-Oki, Japan, Ultra-Slow Earthquake, J. Phys. Earth, 43, 105–116, 1995.
Miyazaki, S. and Y. Hatanaka, Summary of the GPS Earth Observation Network in Japan being carried out by the Geographical Survey Institute, Meteorological Research Note, 192, 11–22, 1998 (in Japanese).
National Astronomical Observatory (ed.), Rika Nenpyo (Chronological Scientific Tables), pp. 636–637, Maruzen Co. Ltd., Tokyo, 2002.
Nishimura, S., M. Ando, and S. Miyazaki, Inter-plate coupling along the Nankai Trough and southeastward motion along southern part of Kyushu, J. Seismol. Soc. Jpn., Ser. 2, 52, 443–456, 1999 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Obana, K., H. Katao, and M. Ando, Seafloor positioning system with GPS-acoustic link for crustal dynamics observation—a preliminary result from experiments in the sea—, Earth Planets Space, 52, 415–423, 2000.
Ozawa, S., T. Murakami, and T. Tada, Time-dependent inversion study of the slow thrust event in the Nankai trough subduction zone, southwestern Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 787–802, 2001a.
Ozawa, S., T. Murakami, M. Kaidzu, T. Tada, T. Sagiya, H. Yarai, and T. Nishimura, Anomalous crustal deformation in the Tokai region in 2001, Abstr. Seismol. Soc. Jpn., C02, 2001b (in Japanese with English abstract).
Ozawa, T., T. Tabei, and S. Miyazaki, Interplate coupling along the Nankai Trough off southwest Japan derived from GPS measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 927–930, 1999.
Plafker, G., Alaskan earthquake of 1964 and Chilean earthquake of 1960: Implications for arc tectonics, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 901–923, 1972.
Sagiya, T. and W. Thatcher, Coseismic slip resolution along a plate boundary megathrust: The Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1111–1129, 1999.
Sato, K., M. Hashimoto, Y. Hoso, F. Ohya, S. Matsuo, S. Fujihara, H. Hirose, H. Hayashi, Y. Ooi, T. Okuda, K. Tadokoro, K. Hirahara, M. Ando, T. Yamada, H. Takiguchi, M. Abe, T. Tabei, H. Chikazoe, Y. Kakehi, Y. Itani, and M. Yamauchi, Evaluation of kinematic GPS positioning accuracy: (1) Different baseline length, Abstr. Joint Meet. Earth Planet. Sci., Dm-002, 2001.
Shinohara, M., E. Araki, T. Kanazawa, H. Mikada, M. Mochizuki, K. Suyehiro, and Y. Fukao, OHP network seafloor borehole observatory— Northwestern Pacific basin, Abstr. Joint Meet. Earth Planet. Sci., Sd-003, 2000.
Spiess, F. N., C. D. Chadwell, J. A. Hildebrand, L. E. Young, G. H. Purcell, Jr., H. Dragert, Precise GPS/Acoustic positioning of seafloor reference points for tectonic studies, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 108, 101–112, 1998.
Tadokoro, K., M. Ando, K. Sato, T. Yamada, T. Okuda, H. Katao, and K. Kishimoto, Development of an observation system for ocean bottom crustal deformation using an acoustic ranging—GPS Link, J. Geography, 110, 521–528, 2001 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Tanioka, Y. and K. Satake, Coseismic slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai earthquake and aseismic slip caused by the earthquake, Earth Planets Space, 53, 235–241, 2001a.
Tanioka, Y. and K. Satake, Detailed coseismic slip distribution of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake estimated from tsunami waveforms, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1075–1078, 2001b.
Thatcher, W., Silent slip on the Cascadia subduction interface, Science, 292, 1495–1496, 2001.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Yamada, T., Ando, M., Tadokoro, K. et al. Error evaluation in acoustic positioning of a single transponder for seafloor crustal deformation measurements. Earth Planet Sp 54, 871–881 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352435
- Global Position System
- Sound Speed
- Very Long Baseline Interferometry
- Crustal Deformation
- Nankai Trough