- Open Access
A viscoelastic model of interseismic strain concentration in Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone of central Japan
Earth, Planets and Spacevolume 55, pages667–675 (2003)
The high strain rates of the Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ) of central Japan have been simulated using a viscoelastic finite element model of great interplate earthquake cycles that includes the subducting Pacific plate and lateral changes in crustal structure beneath NKTZ. As a result of long-term loading at trenches, the elastic crust over a viscoelastic mantle can transfer stress or strain rate not only as an average of geological time scales, but also during an interplate earthquake cycle. Thus, if the earthquake cycle is several times longer than the relaxation time of the viscoelastic system, deformation of an inland area far from trenches responds to the cycles of interplate earthquakes, and the crust deforms like an elastic sheet during the later stage of an earthquake cycle, allowing efficient transmission of stress during this period. Therefore, in the case of long interplate earthquake cycle, the NKTZ crustal structure with small thickness and rigidity enhances local interseismic strain concentration there. The “plate coupling ratio” (0.4∼0.5) between Pacific and Amurian plates and local crustal heterogeneity beneath the high strain rate zone explain the large strain rate belt if the earthquake cycle offshore Kanto is enough long.
Hashimoto, M., Average horizontal crustal strain rates in Japan during interseismic period deduced from geodetic surveys (Part 1), Zisin (J. Seism. Soc. Japan), Ser. 2, 41, 13–26, 1990 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Hashimoto, M. and D. D. Jackson, Plate tectonics and crustal deformation around the Japanese islands, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 16149–16166, 1993.
Heki, K. and S. Miyazaki, Plate convergence and long-term crustal deformation in central Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2313–2316, 2001.
Henry, P., S. Mazzotti, and X. Le Pichon, Transient and permanent deformation of central Japan estimated by GPS, 1, Interseismic loading and subduction kinematics, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 184, 443–453, 2001.
Huzita, K., Role of the median tectonic line in the Quaternary tectonics of the Japanese islands, Memoirs of the Geological Society of Japan, 18, 129–153, 1980 (in Japanese).
Iio, Y., T. Sagiya, Y. Kobayashi, and I. Shiozaki, Water-weakened lower crust and its role in the concentrated deformation in the Japanese islands, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 203, 245–253, 2002.
Iizuka, M., D. Sekita, H. Suito, M. Hyodo, K. Hirahara, D. Place, P. Mora, O. Hazama, and H. Okuda, Parallel simulation system for earthquake generation: fault analysis modules and parallel coupling analysis, Concurrency Computat.: Pract. Exper., 14, 499–519, 2002.
Ishikawa, N. and M. Hashimoto, Average horizontal crustal strain rates in Japan during interseismic period deduced from geodetic surveys (Part 2), Zisin (J. Seism. Soc. Japan), Sec. 2, 52, 299–315, 1999 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Mazzotti, S., X. Le Phichon, P. Henry, and S. Miyazaki, Full interseismic locking of the Nankai and Japan-west Kurile subduction zones, An analysis of uniform elastic strain accumulation in Japan constrained by permanent GPS, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 13159–13177, 2000.
Mazzotti, S., P. Henry, and X. Le Pichon, Transient and permanent deformation of central Japan estimated by GPS, 2. Strain partitioning and arc-arc collision, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 184, 455–469, 2001.
Melosh, H. J. and A. Raefsky, A simple and efficient method for introducing faults into finite element computation, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 71, 1391–1400, 1981.
Ohtake, M., Statistical Forecast of the Next Miyagi-Oki Earthquake, and Inter-Plate Coupling at the Focal Area, Abstr. Seism. Soc. Jpn., P031, 1999 (in Japanese).
Sagiya, T., S. Miyazaki, and T. Tada, Continuous GPS array and present-day crustal deformation of Japan, Pure Appl. Geophys, 157, 2303–2322, 2000.
Sato, K., H. Ishii, and A. Takagi, Characteristics of crustal stress and crustal movements in the northeastern Japan arc (Part 1), Zisin (J. Seism. Soc. Japan), Ser. 2, 34, 551–563, 1981 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Savage, J. C., A dislocation model of strain accumulation and release at a subduction zone, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 4984–4996, 1983.
Suito, H. and K. Hirahara, Simulation of postseismic deformation caused by the 1896 Riku-u earthquake, Northeast Japan: Re-evaluation of the viscosity in the upper mantle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2561–2564, 1999.
Wang, K. and K. Suyehiro, How does plate coupling affect crustal stresses in Northeast and Southwest Japan?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2307–2310, 1999.
Wang, K., J. He, H. Dragert, and T. S. James, Three-dimensional viscoelastic interseismic deformation model for the Cascadia subduction zone, Earth Planet Space, 53, 295–306, 2001.
Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Y. K. Cheung, The Finite Element Method in Structural and Continuum Mechanics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967.