Skip to main content

Applications of paleomagnetism in the volcanic field: A case study of the Unzen Volcano, Japan

Abstract

A case study is presented for applications of paleomagnetism in the volcanic field. First, the importance of magnetic cleaning was demonstrated for the present-day pyroclastic flow. Some blocks contained a very large secondary component which was removed only after heating to temperatures over 400°C. Second, progressive thermal demagnetization was used to determine the cooling history of volcanic products. In the case of a block-and-ash flow found at a depth of 450 m in a drill core, the emplacement temperature varied from block to block, giving inconsistent results. Some blocks, however, might have undergone rotations during cooling because one or two sharp kinks were often recognized in the orthogonal plots of thermal demagnetization. In another case of a Holocene block-and-ash flow, the remanence directions for block samples were completely scattered. This contradictory observation is interpreted by an eruptive sequence that the blocks had already cooled down below the blocking temperature at the summit when the lava dome was at the stage of endogenous formation. Finally, case studies of lava identification by remanence directions are given. For some lava flows which are coeval in terms of volcano-stratigraphy, remanence directions are different beyond the error, suggesting a short time gap between their extrusion.

References

  • Ali, M., H. Oda, A. Hayashida, K. Takemura, and M. Torii, Holocene palaeomagnetic secular variation at Lake Biwa, central Japan, Geophys. J. Int., 136, 218–228, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aramaki, S. and S. Akimoto, Temperature estimation of pyroclastic deposits by natural remanent magnetism, Am. J. Sci., 255, 619–627, 1957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baag, C., C. E. Helsley, S. Xu, and B. R. Lienert, Deflection of paleomagnetic directions due to magnetization of the underlying terrain, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 10013–10027, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barton, C. E., D. R. Barraclough, and J. M. Quinn (eds.), Analysis and modeling of global magnetic field data and the IGRF (special volume), J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 49, 121–467, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blum, P., Physical properties handbook: A guide to the shipboard measurement of physical properties of deep-sea cores, Technical Note 26, Ocean Drilling Program, 1997.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Bogue, S. W. and R. S. Coe, Paleomagnetic correlation of Columbia river basalt flows using secular variation, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 11883–11897, 1981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Böhnel, H. and E. Schnepp, Precision of the paleomagnetic method: An example from the Quaternary Eifel volcanics (Germany), Earth Planets Space, 51, 403–412, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castro, J. and L. Brown, Shallow paleomagnetic directions from historic lava flows, Hawaii, Geophys. Res. Lett., 14, 1203–1206, 1987.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clement, B. M., C. B. Connor, and G. Graper, Paleomagnetic estimate of the emplacement temperature of the long-runout Nevado de Colima volcanic debris avalanche deposit, Mexico, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 120, 499–510, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Downey, W. S. and D. H. Tarling, Archaeomagnetic dating of Santorini volcanic eruptions and fired destruction levels of late Minoan civilization, Nature, 309, 519–523, 1984.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eighmy, J. L. and R. S. Sternberg (eds.), Archaeomagnetic Dating, The University of Arizona Press, 446 pp, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  • Enkin, R. J. and G. S. Watson, Statistical analysis of palaeomagnetic inclination data, Geophys. J. Int., 126, 495–504, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hagstrum, J. T. and D. E. Champion, Paleomagnetic correlation of Late Quaternary lava flows in the lower east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 21679–21690, 1994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoblitt, R. P. and K. S. Kellogg, Emplacement temperatures of unsorted and unstratified deposits of volcanic rock debris as determined by paleomagnetic techniques, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 90, 633–642, 1979.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holcomb, R., D. Champion, and M. McWilliams, Dating recent Hawaiian lava flows using paleomagnetic secular variation, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 97, 829–839, 1986.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoshizumi, H., K. Uto, and K. Watanabe, Geology and eruptive history of Unzen volcano, Shimabara Peninsula, Kyushu, SW Japan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 89, 81–94, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoshizumi, H., K. Uto, A. Matsumoto, S. Xu, and K. Oguri, Geology of Unzen volcano and core stratigraphy of the flank drillings, Extended abstract, Unzen Workshop 2002, Shimabara, 4–8, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hyodo, M., C. Itota, and K. Yaskawa, Geomagnetic secular variation reconstructed from magnetizations of wide-diameter cores of Holocene sediments in Japan, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 45, 669–696, 1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kent, D. V., D. Ninkovich, T. Pescatore, and S. R. J. Sparks, Palaeomagnetic determination of emplacement temperature of Vesuvius AD 79 pyroclas-tic deposits, Nature, 290, 393–396, 1981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matsumoto, A., H. Hoshizumi, and K. Uto, K-Ar age determinations of USDP cores in Unzen Scientific Drilling Project and products on the surface of Unzen volcano, Extended abstract, Unzen Workshop 2002, Shimabara, 49–50, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • McClelland, E. A. and T. H. Druitt, Palaeomagnetic estimates of emplacement temperatures of pyroclastic deposits on Santorini, Greece, Bull. Volcanol., 51, 16–27, 1989.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McFadden, P. L. and F. J. Lowes, The discrimination of mean directions drawn from Fisher distributions, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., 67, 19–33, 1981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McIntosh, W. C., Evaluation of paleomagnetism as a correlation criterion for Mogollon-Datil ignimbrites, Southwestern New Mexico, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 13459–13483, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merrill, R. T., M. W. McElhinny, and P. L. McFadden, The Magnetic Field of the Earth, 527 pp, Academic Press, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miki, D., Estimate of the ages of lava flows at Sakurajima volcano, Kyushu, Japan; inferred from paleomagnetic directions and paleointensities, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 44, 111–122, 1999 (in Japanese with English abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  • Ozima, M., O. Oshima, and M. Funaki, Magnetic properties of pyroclastic rocks from later stage of the eruptive activity of Haruna Volcano in relation to the self-reversal of thermo-remanent magnetization, Earth Planets Space, 55, 183–188, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saito, T., N. Ishikawa, and H. Kamata, Identification of magnetic minerals carrying NRM in pyroclastic-flow deposits, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 126, 127–142, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sternberg, R., E. Lass, E. Marion, K. Katari, and M. Holbrook, Anomalous archaeomagnetic directions and site formation processes at archaeological sites in Israel, Geoarchaeology, 14, 415–439, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tamura, Y., M. Koyama, and R. S. Fiske, Paleomagnetic evidence for hot pyroclastic debris flow in the shallow submarine Shirahama Group (upper Miocene-Pliocene), Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 21779–21787, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tanaka, H. and T. Kobayashi, Paleomagnetism of the late Quaternary On-take Volcano, Japan: Directions, intensities, and excursions, Earth Planets Space, 55, 189–202, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tateyama, H., H. Hoshizumi, and K. Watanabe, Stratigraphy and eruptive history of Nodake volcano, Unzen, Kyushu, Japan, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 47, 739–749, 2002 (in Japanese with English abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  • Ui, T., N. Matsuwo, M. Sumita, and A. Fujinawa, Generation of block and ash flows during the 1990–1995 eruption of Unzen Volcano, Japan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 89, 123–137, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J., L. M. Alva-Valdivia, A. Goguitchaichvili, M. L. Rivas, and J. Morales, Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and microscopy studies of historic lava flows from the Paricutin volcano, Mexico: Implications for the deflection of palaeomagnetic directions, Geophys. J. Int., 156, 431–442, 2004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uto, K., H. Hoshizumi, A. Matsumoto, and H. Nguyen, Volcanotectonic history of Shimabara Peninsula and the evolution of Unzen volcano in Southwest Japan, Extended abstract, Unzen Workshop 2002, Shimabara, 47–48, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Verrier, V. and P. Rochette, Estimating peak currents at ground lightning impacts using remanent magnetization, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1867, doi:10.1029/2002GL015207, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watanabe, K. and H. Hoshizumi, Geological map of Unzen volcano, Geological Map of Volcanoes 8, Geological Survey of Japan, 1995 (in Japanese with English abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  • Yamazaki, T., I. Kato, I. Muroi, and M. Abe, Textural analysis and flow mechanism of the Donzurubo subaqueous pyroclastic flow deposits, Bull. Volcanol., 37, 231–244, 1973.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hidefumi Tanaka.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tanaka, H., Hoshizumi, H., Iwasaki, Y. et al. Applications of paleomagnetism in the volcanic field: A case study of the Unzen Volcano, Japan. Earth Planet Sp 56, 635–647 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352526

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352526

Key words

  • paleomagnetism
  • progressive thermal demagnetization
  • block-and-ash flow
  • exogenous dome
  • endogenous dome
  • Unzen Volcano