Skip to main content

Evidence for geomagnetic jerks in comprehensive models

Abstract

The rate of secular variation occasionally undergoes a sudden, sharp change, called a geomagnetic jerk. Such jerks have been detected in geomagnetic time series, centered—over the last four decades—around 1971, 1980, 1991, and 1999; others have been inferred from historical records. The geomagnetic jerks represent a reorganization of the secular variation, implying an internal origin, as established through spherical harmonic and wavelet analysis. However, some characteristics of jerks are not well understood. Here we estimate the occurrence dates for geomagnetic jerks, as they can be detected from a global geomagnetic model. This choice makes the present study novel, for two reasons. First, utilizing the comprehensive modelling approach allows for the use of a secular variation signal free of time-varying external fields and their corresponding induced counterpart, and observatory biases. Second, the model utilizes satellite data when available, in addition to observatory data. Indeed, POGO (1967 to 1971), MAGSAT (1979 to 1980), Ørsted (1999 to present time) and CHAMP (2000 to present time) satellite measurements help to separate the different magnetic sources. In this study the CM4 comprehensive model is used for a global search of geomagnetic jerks and their occurrence dates. Our first result indicates that found geomagnetic jerks might not have been worldwide in occurrence. Moreover, the obtained dates suggest that jerks detected in the CM4 model over the last four decades occurred not simultaneously but at slightly different times around 1971, 1980 and 1991.

References

  • Alexandrescu, M., D. Gibert, G. Hulot, J.-L. Le Mouël, and G. Saracco, Detection of geomagnetic jerks using wavelet analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 12557–12572, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alexandrescu, M., D. Gibert, G. Hulot, J.-L. Le Mouël, and G. Saracco, Worldwide analysis of geomagnetic jerks, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 21975–21994, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bloxham, J., S. Zatman, and M. Dumberry, The origin of geomagnetic jerks, Nature, 420, 65–68, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chau, H. D., J. Ducruix, and J.-L. Le Mouël, Sur le caractère planétaire du saut de variation séculaire de 1969–1970, C. R. Acad. Sci. B, 298, 157–160, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  • Courtillot, V., J. Ducruix, and J.-L. Le Mouël, Sur une accélération récente de la variation séculaire du champ magnétique terrestre, C. R. Acad. Sci. D, 287, 1095–1098, 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Michelis, P., L. Cafarella, and A. Meloni, Worldwide character of the 1991 jerk, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 377–380, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Friis-Christensen, E., A. De Santis, A. Jackson, G. Hulot, A. Kuvshinov, H. Lühr, M. Mandea, S. Maus, N. Olsen, M. Purucker, M. Rothacher, T. Sabaka, A. Thomson, S. Vennerstrom, and P. Visser, Swarm. The Earth’s Magnetic Field and Environment Explorers, ESA SP-1279(6), 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, A., A. Jonkers, and M. Walker, Four centuries of geomagnetic secular variation from historical records, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., 358, 957–990, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Langel, R. A., T. J. Sabaka, R. T. Baldwin, and J. A. Conrad, The near-Earth magnetic field from magnetospheric and quiet-day ionospheric sources and how it is modeled, Phys. Earth Planet Inter., 98, 235–267, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Le Huy, M., M. Alexandrescu, G. Hulot, and J.-L. Le Mouël, On the characteristics of successive geomagnetic jerks, Earth Planets Space, 50, 723–732, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mandea, M. and E. Dormy, Asymmetric behavior of magnetic dip poles, Earth Planets Space, 55, 153–157, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mandea, M. and B. Langlais, Observatory crustal magnetic biases during MAGSAT and Ørsted satellite missions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/2001GL013693, 2002.

  • Mandea Alexandrescu, M., D. Gibert, J.-L. Le Mouël, G. Hulot, and G. Saracco, An estimate of average lower mantle conductivity by wavelet analysis of geomagnetic jerks, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 17735–17745, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mandea, M., E. Bellanger, and J.-L. Le Mouël, A geomagnetic jerk for the end of 20th century?, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 183, 369–373, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nagao, H., T. Iyemori, T. Higuchi, S. Nakano, and T. Araki, Local time features of geomagnetic jerks, Earth Planets Space, 54, 119–131, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nagao, H., T. Iyemori, T. Higuchi, and T. Araki, Lower mantle conductivity anomalies estimated from geomagnetic jerks, J. Geophys. Res., 108(B5), 2254, doi:10.1029/2002JB001786, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sabaka, T. J. and R. T. Baldwin, Modeling the Sq magnetic field from POGO and MAGSAT satellite and contemporaneous hourly observatory data, HSTX/G&G-9302, Hughes STX Corp., 7701 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sabaka, T., N. Olsen, and R. A. Langel, A comprehensive model of the quiet-time, near-Earth magnetic field: phase 3, Geophys. J. Int., 151, 32–68, 2002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sabaka, T., N. Olsen, and M. E. Purucker, Extending comprehensive models of the Earth’s magnetic field with Ørsted and CHAMP data, Geophys. J. Int., 159, 521–547, 2004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stewart, D. N. and K. Whaler, Geomagnetic disturbance fields: An analysis of observatory monthly means, Geophys. J. Int., 108, 215–223, 1992.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wessel, P. and W H. F, Smith, Free software helps map and display data. EOS Trans. AGU, 72, 445–446, 1991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mioara Mandea.

Rights and permissions

Open Access  This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chambodut, A., Mandea, M. Evidence for geomagnetic jerks in comprehensive models. Earth Planet Sp 57, 139–149 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352558

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352558

Key words

  • Geomagnetic field
  • secular variation
  • geomagnetic impulses
  • comprehensive models