Special Issue: Special Section for the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake (2)
Incoherent radar spectra in the auroral ionosphere in the presence of a large electric field: The effect of O+-O+ Coulomb collisions
Earth, Planets and Space volume 57, pages 515–520 (2005)
We have used Monte Carlo simulations of O+ velocity distributions in the high latitude F- region to improve the calculation of incoherent radar spectra in auroral ionosphere. The Monte Carlo simulation includes ionneutral, O+-O collisions (resonant charge exchange and polarization interaction) as well as O+-O+ Coulomb self-collisions. At high altitudes, atomic oxygen O and atomic oxygen ion O+ dominate the composition of the auroral ionosphere and consequently, the influence of O+-O+ Coulomb collisions becomes significant. In this study we consider the effect of O+-O+ Coulomb collisions on the incoherent radar spectra in the presence of large electric field (100 mVm-1). As altitude increases (i.e. the ion-to-neutral density ratio increases) the role of O+-O+ Coulomb self-collisions becomes significant, therefore, the one-dimensional, 1-D, O+ ion velocity distribution function becomes more Maxwellian and the features of the radar spectrum corresponding to non-Maxwellian ion velocity distribution (e.g. baby bottle and triple hump shapes) evolve to Maxwellian ion velocity distribution (single and double hump shapes). Therefore, O+-O+ Coulomb self-collisions act to isotropize the 1-D O+ velocity distribution by transferring thermal energy from the perpendicular direction to the parallel direction, however the convection electric field acts to drive the O+ ions away from equilibrium and consequently, non-Maxwellian O+ ion velocity distributions appeared. Therefore, neglecting O+-O+ Coulomb self-collisions overestimates the effect of convection electric field.
Barakat, A. R. and D. Hubert, Comparison of Monte Carlo simulation and polynomial expansions of auroral non-Maxwellian distributions, 2, the 1-D representation, Ann. Geophysicae, 8, 697–704, 1990.
Barakat, A. R., D. Hubert, and J. P. St.-Maurice, Generating a synthetic incoherent scattering radar spectrum using a Monte Carlo simulation, EoS, 71, 1503, 1990.
Barakat, A. R., R. W. Schunk, and J. P. St.-Maurice, Monte Carlo calculations of velocity distributions in the auroral ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 3237–3241, 1983.
Barghouthi, I. A. and N. A. Qatanani, Monte Carlo simulation of Maxwell molecule interactions in space plasma, Indian J. Phys., 77B(2), 241–245, 2003.
Barghouthi, I. A., A. R. Barakat, and R. W. Schunk, Effect of ion self collisions on the non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions in the high-latitude F-region, EoS, 72, 365, 1991.
Barghouthi, I. A., A. R. Barakat, and R. W. Schunk, A Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of ion self-collisions on the ion velocity distribution function in the high-latitude F-region, Ann. Geophysicae, 12, 1076–1084, 1994.
Barghouthi, I. A., E. I. Elias, M. A. Abu Samra, N. A. Qatanani, and M. S. Issa, Monte Carlo simulation of O+ behavior in the auroral ionosphere, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 72(11), 2003.
Cole, K. D., Atmospheric excitation and ionization by ions in strong auroral and man-made electric fields, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 33, 1241–1249, 1971.
Gaimard, P., C. Lathuillere, and D. Hubert, Non-Maxwellian studies in the auroral F-region: a new analysis of incoherent scatter spectra, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 58, 415–433, 1996.
Gaimard, P., J. P. St.-Maurice, C. Lathuillere, and D. Hubert, On the improvement of analytical calculations of collisional auroral ion velocity distributions using recent Monte Carlo results, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 4079–4095, 1998.
Hubert, D., Auroral ion velocity distribution function: Generalized polynomial solution of Boltzmann equation, Planet. Space Sci., 31, 119–127, 1983.
Hubert, D., Non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions and incoherent scattering of radar waves in the auroral ionosphere, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 46, 601–611, 1984.
Hubert, D. and A. R. Barakat, Comparison of Monte Carlo simulation and polynomial expansion of auroral Non-Maxwellian distributions, Part 1: the 3-D representation, Ann. Geophysicae, 8, 687–696, 1990.
Hubert, D. and F. Leblanc, The auroral O+ non-Maxwellian velocity distribution function revisited, Ann. Geophysicae, 15, 249–254, 1997.
Hubert, D., N. Bonnard, C. Lathuillere, and W. Kofman, A new scenario for the measurement of the auroral plasma parameters in the non-Maxwellian state, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2691–2694, 1993.
Kikuchi, K., J. P. St.-Maurice, and A. R. Barakat, Monte Carlo computations of F-region incoherent radar spectra at high latitudes and the use of a simple method for non-Maxwellian spectral calculations, Ann. Geo-physicae, 7, 183–194, 1989.
Kinzelin, E. and D. Hubert, Ion velocity distribution function in the upper auroral F-region. 1. Phenomenological approach, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 4061–4072, 1992.
Lockwood, M., B. J. I. Bromage, R. B. Horne, J. P. St.-Maurice, D. Willis, and S. W. H. Cowley, Non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions observed using EISCAT, Geophys. Res. Lett., 14, 111–114, 1987.
McCrea, I. W., M. Lester, T. R. Robinson, J. P. St.-Maurice, N. M. Wade, and T. B. Jones, Derivation of the ion temperature partition coefficients from the study of ion frictional heating events, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 15,701–15,715, 1993.
Ogawa, Y., R. Fujii, S. C. Buchert, S. Nozawa, S. Watanabe, and A. P. van Eyken, Simultaneous EISCAT Svalbard and VHF radar observations of ion upflows at different aspect angles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(1), 81–84, 2000.
Perraut, S., A. Brekke, M. Baron, and D. Hubert, EISCAT measurements of ion temperatures which indicate non-isotropic ion velocity distributions, J. Atoms. Terr. Phys., 46, 531–543, 1984.
Raman, R. S. V., J. P. St-Maurice, and R. S. B. Ong, Incoherent scattering of radar waves in the auroral ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 4751–4762, 1981.
Salah, J. E., Interim standard for the ion-neutral atomic oxygen collision frequency, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1543–1546, 1993.
St.-Maurice, J. P. and R. W. Schunk, Auroral ion velocity distributions using a relaxation model, Planet. Space Sci., 21, 1115–1130, 1973.
St.-Maurice, J. P. and R. W. Schunk, Use of generalized orthogonal polynomial solutions of Boltzmann equation in certain aeronomy problems: auroral ion velocity distributions, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 2145–2154, 1976.
St.-Maurice, J. P. and R. W. Schunk, Ion velocity distributions in the high-latitude ionosphere, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 17, 99–133, 1979.
Takisuka, T. and H. Abe, A binary collision model for plasma simulation with a particle code, J. Comp. Phys., 25, 205–219, 1977.
Tereshchenko, V. D., E. D. Tereshchenko, and H. Kohl, The incoherent scattering of radio waves in a non-Maxwellian plasma: The effect of Coulomb collisions, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 17,591–17,598, 1991.
Winkler, E., J. P. St.-Maurice, and A. R. Barakat, Results from improved Monte Carlo calculations of auroral ion velocity distributions, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 8399–8423, 1992.
Winser, K. J., G. O. L. Jones, and P. J. S. Williams, A quantitative study of the high-latitude ionospheric trough using EISCAT’s common programs, J. Atoms. Terr. Phys., 48, 893–904, 1986.
Winser, K. J., M. Lockwood, and G. O. L. Jones, Non-thermal plasma observations using EISCAT: Aspect angle dependence, Geophys. Res. Lett., 14, 957–960, 1987.
About this article
Cite this article
Barghouthi, I.A. Incoherent radar spectra in the auroral ionosphere in the presence of a large electric field: The effect of O+-O+ Coulomb collisions. Earth Planet Sp 57, 515–520 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352585
- Incoherent radar spectra
- auroral ionosphere
- Coulomb collision
- convection electric field
- Monte Carlo simulation