- Open Access
A search for a correlation between time change in transfer functions and seismic energy release in northern Taiwan
Earth, Planets and Space volume 58, pages981–991(2006)
The geomagnetic data of the Lunping Geomagnetic Observatory from 1988 to 2000 are utilized for computing daily geomagnetic transfer functions. The method of analysis is based on the power spectrum analysis developed by Everett and Hyndman. Monthly means are statistically obtained from these daily values of transfer functions. In order to compare these time changes with seismic activity (seismicity), the earthquakes occurring within 150 km from Lunping, with a magnitude ML greater than 4.0, are located. The related energy releases by those earthquakes, summed month by month, are correlated to the transfer functions. After removing the seasonal effect, we find that the time changes of magnitude of Au and Bu (real parts of the transfer function) for frequencies of 2, 3, 4, and 6 cycles/hour seem to be strongly related to the energy release within the whole study period. Two significant precursors were found from the A and B values, 40 and 20 months before high seismicities, respectively.
Beamish, D., A geomagnetic precursory to 1979 Carlisle earthquake, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., 68, 531–543, 1982.
Chen, P. F., A search for correlation between time change in transfer functions and seismic activity in north Taiwan, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 33, 635–643, 1981.
Chen, P. F. and P. C. W. Fung, Significance of the sign changing of the imaginary arrows in geomagnetic induction investigation, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., 80, 257–263, 1985.
Chen, P. F. and P. C. W. Fung, Time changes in complex transfer functions at Lunping and the 1986 earthquake (MS = 7.6) near Hualian, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Geomagnetism, edited by the Organizing Committee of Conference, pp. 81–85, Seismological Bureau of Shanghai, China 1990.
Chen, P. F and P. C. W. Fung, Time changes in geomagnetic transfer functions at Lunping before and after the 1986 Hualian earthquake (MS = 7.6), J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 45, 251–259, 1993.
Everett, J. E. and R. D. Hyndman, Geomagnetic variations and electrical conductivity structure in southwestern Australia, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 1, 24–34, 1967.
Fraser-Smith, A. C., A. Bernardi, P. R. McGill, M. E. Ladd, R. A. Helliwell, and O. G. Villard, Jr., Low-frequency magnetic field measurements near the epicenter of the Ms 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 1465–1468, 1990.
Fujinawa, Y. and K. Takanashi, Anomalous VLF subsurface electric field changes preceding earthquakes, Tech. Note Natl. Res. Inst. Earth Sci. Disast. Prev., 166, 61–75, 1994.
Fujita, S., Monitoring of time changes of conductivity anomaly transfer functions at Japanese magnetic observatory network, Mem. Kakioka Mag. Obs., 23, 53–87, 1990.
Fujiwara, S. and H. Toh, Geomagnetic transfer functions in Japan obtained by first order geomagnetic survey, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 48, 1071–1101, 1996.
Gong, S. J., Anomalous changes in transfer functions and the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (MS = 7.8), J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 37, 503–508, 1985.
Gutenberg, B. and C. F. Richter, Magnitude and energy of earthquakes, Annali di Geofisica, 9(1), 1–15, 1956.
Honkura, Y., Observations of short-period geomagnetic variation at Nakaizu (2): Changes in transfer functions associated with the Izu-Oshima-Kinkai earthquake of 1978, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Tokyo, 54, 477–490, 1979.
Huang, Y. N., On the digital geomagnetic observatory at Lunping, Taiwan, Phys. Earth Plant. Inter., 59, 66–77, 1990.
Liu, J. Y., Y. I. Chen, Y. B. Tsai, and Y. J. Chuo, Seismo-ionospheric signatures prior to M ≥ 6.0 Taiwan earthquakes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3113–3116, 2000.
Miyakoshi, J., Secular variation of Parkinson vectors in a seismically active region of Middle Asia, J. Faculty Gen. Education, Tottori Univ., 8, 209–218, 1975.
Nagao, T., Y. Enomoto, Y. Fujinawa, M. Hata, M. Hayakawa, Q. Huang, J. Izutsu, Y. Kushida, K. Maeda, K. Oike, S. Uyeda, and T. Yoshino, Electromagnetic anomalies associated with 1995 Kobe earthquake, J. Geodynamics, 33, 401–411, 2002.
Niblett, E. R. and Y. Honkura, Time-dependence of electromagnetic transferfunctions and their association with tectonic activity, Geophys. Surv., 4, 97–114, 1980.
Oike, K. and H. Murakami, On the relationship between shallow earthquakes and VLF noises, Tech. Note Natl. Res. Inst., Earth Sci. Disast. Pre., 157, 221–271, 1993 (in Japanese).
Pulinets, S. A., Seismic activity as a source of ionospheric variability, Adv. Space Res., 22, 903–906, 1998.
Rikitake, T., Changes in the direction of magnetic vector of short-period geomagnetic variations before the 1972 Sitka, Alaska, earthquake, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 31, 441–448, 1979.
Rikitake, T., Earthquake precursors in Japan: precursor time and detectability, Tectonophysics, 136, 263–282, 1987a.
Rikitake, T., Magnetic and electric signals precursory to earthquakes: an analysis of Japanese data, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 39, 47–61, 1987b.
Rikitake, T., Nature of electromagnetic emission precursory to an earthquake, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 49, 1153–1163, 1997.
Sano, Y., Time changes of transfer functions at Kakioka related to earthquake occurrences (I), Mem. Kakioka Mag. Obs., 39(2), 1–25, 1980.
Scholtz. C. H. and R. Kranz, Notes on dilatancy recovery, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 2132–2135, 1974.
Scholtz, C. H., L. R. Sykes, and Y. P. Aggarwal, Earthquake prediction: a physical basis, Science, 181, 803–810, 1973.
Shiraki, M., Monitoring of the time change in transfer functions in the central Japan conductivity anomaly, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 32, 637–648, 1980.
Xu, W. Y., K. Qi, and S. M. Wang, On the short period geomagnetic variation anomaly of eastern Kansu province, Acta Geophys. Sinica, 21, 218–224, 1978 (Chinese with English abstract).
Yanagihara, K., Secular variation of the electrical conductivity anomaly in the central part of Japan, Mem. Kakioka Mag. Obs., 15, 1–11, 1972.
Yanagihara, K. and T. Nagano, Time change of transfer function in the central Japan anomaly of conductivity with special reference to earthquake occurrences, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 28, 157–163, 1976.
Yen, H. Y., C. H. Chen, Y. H. Yeh, J. Y. Liu, C. R. Lin, and Y. B. Tsai, Geomagnetic fluctuations during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, Earth Planets Space, 56, 39–45, 2004.
Yoshino, T., I. Tomizawa, and T. Sugimoto, Results of statistical analysis of low-frequency seismogenic EM emissions as precursories to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 77, 21–31, 1993.
Zeng, X., Y. Lin, C. Xu, and S. O. Yang, Turning changes in evolution of geomagnetic field and infrastructural analysis of earthquake prediction, Kybernets-Int. J. Systems & Cybernetics, 30, 365–377, 2001.
Zeng, X., M. Hayakawa, Y. Lin, and C. Xu, Infrastructrual analysis of geomagnetic field and earthquake prediction, in Seismo Electromagnetics: Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling, edited by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchannov, TERRAPUB, Tokyo, pp. 463–468, 2002.
About this article
Cite this article
Chen, K., Chiu, B. & Lin, C. A search for a correlation between time change in transfer functions and seismic energy release in northern Taiwan. Earth Planet Sp 58, 981–991 (2006) doi:10.1186/BF03352603
- Transfer function
- seismic energy release