Skip to main content

Long-distance traveling ionospheric disturbances caused by the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 26 December 2004

Abstract

By using data from the GPS network, we observed exceptional intensive quasi-periodical perturbations of the total electron content (TEC) caused by the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 26 December 2004. The time period of the variations was about 15 min, their duration was about 1 hour. The amplitude of the TEC oscillations exceeded the amplitude of “background” fluctuations in this range of periods by one order of magnitude, at a minimum. They were registered 2–7 hours after the main shock at a distance from 1000 to 5000 km, both on the northwest and northeast outward from the epicenter. The most probable source of the observed oscillations appeared to be a seismic airwave generated by the sudden vertical displacement of the Earth’s surface near the epicenter.

References

  1. Afraimovich, E. L., GPS global detection of the ionospheric response to solar flares, Radio Science, 35(6), 1417–1424, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Afraimovich, E. L., N. P. Perevalova, A. V. Plotnikov, and A. M. Uralov, The shock-acoustic waves generated by the earthquakes, Annales Geophysicae,19, 395–409, 2001a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Afraimovich, E. L., E. A. Kosogorov, O. S. Lesyuta, I. I. Ushakov, and A. F. Yakovets, Geomagnetic control of the spectrum of traveling ionospheric disturbances based on data from a global GPS network, Annales Geophysicae,19, 723–731, 2001b.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Afraimovich, E. L., V. V. Kirushkin, and N. P. Perevalova, Determination of the characteristics of ionospheric disturbance in the near zone of the earthquake epicenter, J. Communications Technology and Electronics,47, 739–747, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Afraimovich E. L., N. P. Perevalova, and S. V. Voyeikov, Traveling wave packets of total electron content disturbances as deduced from global GPS network data, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 65, 1245–1262, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Afraimovich, E. L., E. I. Astafieva, V. V. Demyanov, I. F. Gamayunov, T. N. Kondakova, S. V. Voeykov, and B. Tsegmed, Ionospheric, Geomagnetic Variations and GPS Positioning Errors During the Major Magnetic Storm on 29–31 October 2003, International Reference Ionosphere News, 11(3, 4), 10–14, 2004a.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Afraimovich, E. L., Yu. B. Bashkuev, O. I. Berngardt, A. V. Gatsutsev, M. G. Dembelov, B. G. Shpynev, V. A. Kobzar, D. S. Kushnarev, V. Yu. Musin, P. Yu. Pushkin, and N. P. Perevalova, Detection of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances from the Data of Simultaneous Measurements of the Electron Concentration, Total Electron Content, and Doppler Frequency Shift at the ISTP Radiophysical Complex, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 44(4), 463–475, 2004b.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Afraimovich, E. L., E. I. Astafieva, and V. V. Kirushkin, Ionospheric Disturbance in the Near-Region of an Earthquake Epicenter on 25 September 2003, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, 48(4), 299–313, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Afraimovich, E. L., E. I. Astafieva, and V. V. Kirushkin, Localization of the source of ionospheric disturbance generated during an earthquake, International J. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 6, GI2002, doi:10.1029/2004GI000092, 2006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Artru, J., T. Farges, and P. Lognonne, Acoustic waves generated from seismic surface waves: propagation properties determined from Doppler sounding observations and normal-mode modeling, Geophys. J. Int., 158, 1067–1077, 2004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bilham, R., R. Engdahl, N. Feldl, and S. P. Satyabala, Partial and complete rupture of the Indo-Andaman plate boundary 1847–2004, Seism. Res. Lett., 76, 299–311, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bolt, B. A., Seismic air waves from the great 1964 Alaskan earthquake, Nature, 202, 1094–1095, 1964.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Calais, E. and J. B. Minster, GPS detection of ionospheric perturbations following the January 1994, Northridge earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1045–1048, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Davies, K. and D. M. Baker, Ionospheric effects observed around the time of the Alaskan earthquake of March 28, 1964, J. Geophys. Res., 70, 2251–2253, 1965.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Ducic, V., J. Artru, and P. Lognonne, Ionospheric remote sensing of the Denali Earthquake Rayleigh surface wave, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(18), 1951, doi:10.1029/2003GL017812, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Francis, S. H., A theory of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances, J. Geophys. Res., 79(34), 5245–5260, 1974.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Golitsyn, G. S. and V. I. Klyatskin, Atmosphere oscillations caused by Earth’s surface displacement, Izvestiya, Atmospheric Oceanic Physics, 3, 1044–1052, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Heki, K. and J.-S. Ping, Directivity and apparent velocity of the coseismic ionospheric disturbances observed with a dense GPS array, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 236, 845–855, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., H. Lichtenegger, and J. Collins, Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, New York, 327 p, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Huang, Y.-N., C. Kang, and S.-W. Chen, On the detection of acousticgravity waves generated by typhon by use of real time HF Doppler frequency shift sounding system, Radio Sci., 20, 897–906, 1985.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Hung, R. G., T. Phan, and R. E. Smith, Observation of gravity waves during the extreme tornado outbreak of 3 April 1974, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 40, 831–843, 1978.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Klobuchar, J. A., Ionospheric time-delay algorithm for single-frequency GPS users, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics System, 23(3), 325–331, 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Khan, S. A. and O. Gudmundsson, GPS analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, EOS, Transactions, AGU, 86(9), 89–100, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Liu, C. H., J. Klostermeyer, K. C. Yeh, T. B. Jones, T. Robinson, O. Holt, R. Leitinger, T. Ogawa, K. Sinno, S. Kato, T. Ogawa, A. J. Bedard, and L. Kersley, Global dynamic responses of the atmosphere to the eruption of mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, J. Geophys. Res., 87(A8), 6281–6290, 1982.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Liu, J. Y., Y. B. Tsai, S. W. Chen, S. P. Lee, Y. C. Chen, H. Y. Yen, W. Y. Chang, and C. Liu, Giant ionospheric disturbances excited by the M9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L02103, doi:10.1029/2005GL023963, 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Obayashi, T., Upper atmospheric disturbances due to high altitude nuclear explosions, Planet. Space Sci., 10, 47–63, 1963.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Oksman, J. and M. Kivinen, Ionospheric gravity waves caused by nuclear explosions, Geophysica, 9, 119–130, 1965.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Pekeris, C. L., The propagation of a pulse in the atmosphere, R. Soc. London Ser. A, A171, 434–449, 1939.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Pokhotelov, O. A., M. Parrot, E. N. Fedorov, V. A. Pilipenko, V. V. Surkov, and V. A. Gladychev, Response of ionosphere to natural and man-made acoustic sources, Annales Geophysicae, 13, 1197–1210, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Press, F. and D. Harkrider, Propagation of acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 67, 3889–3908, 1962.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Roberts, D. H., J. A. Klobuchar, P. F. Fougere, and D. H. Hendrickson, A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance produced by the May 18, 1980, explosion of Mount St. Helens, J. Geophys. Res., 87(A8), 6291–6301, 1982.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Roder, H., T. Braun, W. Schunmann, E. Boschi, R. Buttner, and B. Zimanovsky, Great Sumatra earthquake registers on electrostatic sensor, EOS, Transactions AGU, 86, 45, 449–450, 8 November 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Row, R. V., Acoustic-gravity waves in the upper atmosphere due to a nuclear detonation and an earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 1599–1610, 1967.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Stein, S. and E. A. Okal, Speed and size of the Sumatra earthquake, Nature, 434, 581–582, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Tanaka, T., T. Ichinose, T. Okuzawa, T. Shibata, Y. Sato, C. Nagasawa, and T. Ogawa, HF-Doppler observations of acoustic waves excited by the Urakawa-Oki earthquake on 21 March 1982, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 46, 233–245, 1984.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Whipple, F. J. W., The great siberian meteor and the waves, seismic and aerial, which it produced, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 56, 287–304, 1930.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Yuen, P. C., P. F. Weaver, R. K. Suzuki, and A. S. Furumoto, Continuous travelling coupling between seismic waves and the ionosphere evident in May 1968 Japan earthquake data, J. Geophys. Res.,74(9), 2256–2264, 1969.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Edward L. Afraimovich.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Astafyeva, E.I., Afraimovich, E.L. Long-distance traveling ionospheric disturbances caused by the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 26 December 2004. Earth Planet Sp 58, 1025–1031 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352607

Download citation

Key words

  • TEC
  • traveling ionospheric disturbances
  • Sumatra-Andaman earthquake
  • GPS
  • seismic airwaves