- Open Access
Volcanic origin of the 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami in the Japan Sea
Earth, Planets and Space volume 59, pages 381–390 (2007)
The generation mechanism of the 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami, which is considered to be the most destructive tsunami that has ever originated in the Japan Sea, has been the subject of much debate. The tsunami caused about 2,000 casualties along the Hokkaido and northern Honsu coasts and inflicted damage as far as the Korean Peninsula. The tsunami source is located between recent tsunamigenic earthquakes, but there is no historical record of an earthquake in 1741. In contrast, the records indicate volcanic activity of Oshima-Oshima, including a large-scale sector collapse, although the volume change associated with the subaerial landslide is too small to explain the observed tsunami heights. Recent marine surveys indicate that the landslide extended to the ocean bottom with a volume change of about 2.5 km3, nearly an order of magnitude larger than the subaerial slide. On the basis of mapped bathymetry, the generation of the tsunami is calculated using a simple kinematic landslide model. The tsunami propagation is computed in two different grids—a 6″ grid around the source and a 1′ grid for the entire Japan Sea. A parameter search of the model shows that the observed tsunami heights are best explained by a horizontal slide velocity of 40 m/s and a rise time of 2 min. The large vertical drop of the landslide and the coupling of the submarine landslide and tsunami are the main factors responsible for the large tsunami.
Abe, K., Quantification of historical tsunamis by the Mt scale, Zisin (J. Seism. Soc. Jpn), 52, 369–377, 1999 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Aki, K. and P. G. Richards, Quantitative Seismology, Vol. II, W. H, Freeman and Company. 932 pp, 1980.
Aida, I., Reliability of a tsunami source model derived from fault parameters, J. Phys. Earth, 26, 57–73, 1978.
Aida, I., An estimation of tsunamis generated by volcanic eruptions—the 1741 eruption of Oshima-Ohshima, Hokkaido, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 59, 519–531, 1984 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Fukao, Y. and M. Furumoto, Mechanism of large earthquakes along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, Tectonophysics, 26, 247–266, 1975.
Harbitz, C. B., Model simulations of tsunamis generated by the Storegga slides, Mar. Geology, 105, 1–21, 1992.
Hatori, T., Reexamination of wave behavior of the Hokkaido-Oshima (the Japane Sea) tsunami in 1741—their comparison with the 1983 Nihonkai-chubu tsunami, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 59, 115–125, 1984 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Hatori, T., Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake tsunami and seismic gap, Gekkan Chikyu (Earth Monthly), suppl. 7, 211–218, 1994 (in Japanese).
Heinrich, P., A. Mangeney, S. Guibourg, R. Roche, G. Boudon, and J.- L. Cheminee, Simulation of water waves generated by a potential debris avalanche in Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3697–3700, 1998.
Imamura, F. and M. M. A. Imteaz, Long waves in two-layers: governing equations and numerical model, Sci. Tsunami Hazards, 13, 3–24, 1995.
Imamura, F. and T. Matsumoto, Field survey of the 1741 Oshima- Oshima volcanic tsunami, Tsunami Engineering Technical Report, Tohoku Univ., 15, 85–105, 1998 (in Japanese).
Imamura, F., S. Okubo, K. Ban, K. Takaoka, A. Sannomiya, S. Yamaki, and E. Kobayashi, Field investigation on the 1741 Kampo Oshima tsunami in Tsugaru peninsula, the northern part of Japan—Detailed survey with additional document “Tsugaru-han Okuni Nikki”, Rekishi Jishin (Historical Earthquakes), 18, 166–175, 2002 (in Japanese).
Jiang, L. and P. LeBlond, 3-Dimensional modeling of tsunami generation due to a submarine mudslide, J. Phys. Ocean, 24, 559–572, 1994.
Johnson, R. W., Large-scale volcanic cone collapse: the 1888 slope failure of Ritter Volcano, and other examples from Papua New Guinea, Bull. Volcanol, 49, 669–679, 1987.
Kajiura, K., Tsunami source, energy and the directivity of wave radiation, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 48, 835–869, 1970.
Kato, Y., Topography and geology of the sector collapse deposit of the Oshima-Oshima island, JAMSTEC J. Deep Sea Res., 13, 659–667, 1997 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Katsui, Y. and M. Yamamoto, The 1741-1742 activity of Oshima-oshima volcano, north Japan, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. Ser. IV, 19, 527–536, 1981.
Katsui, Y., I. Yokoyama, S. Ehara, H. Yamashita, K. Hiida, and M. Yamamoto, Oshima-Oshima. Report of the Volcanoes in Hokkaido, part.6. Committee for Prevention of the Natural Disasters of Hokkaido, Sapporo, 82 pp., 1977 (in Japanese).
Kawamata, K, K, Takaoka, K. Ban, F. Imamura, S. Yamaki, and E. Kobayashi, Model of tsunami generation by collapse of volcanic eruption: the 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami, in Tsunamis: Case Studies and Recent Developments, edited by K. Satake, Springer, 79–96, 2005.
Kokelaar, P. and C. Romagnoli, Sector collapse, sedimentation and clast population evolution at an active island-arc volcano: Stromboli, Italy, Bull. Volcanol., 57, 240–262, 1995.
Nakamura, K., Possible nascent trench along the eastern Japan Sea as the boundary between Eurasian and North American plates, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 58, 711–722, 1983 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Ohtake, M., A seismic gap in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea as inferred from the time-space distribution of past seismicity, The Island Arc, 4, 156–165, 1995.
Ruff, L. J., Some aspects of energy balance and tsunami generation by earthquakes and tsunamis, Pure Appl. Geophys., 160, 2155–2176, 2003.
Satake, K., Re-examination of the 1940 Shakotan-oki earthquake and the fault parameters of the earthquakes along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 43, 137–147, 1986.
Satake, K., Linear and non-linear computations of the 1992 Nicaragua earthquake tsunami, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 144, 455–470, 1995.
Satake, K. and Y. Kato, The 1741 Oshima-Oshima Eruption: Extent and Volume of Submarine Debris Avalanche, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 427–430, 2001.
Satake, K. and Y. Tanioka, Tsunami generation of the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake, Pure Appl. Geophys., 144, 803–821, 1995.
Satake, K., J. R. Smith, and K. Shinozaki, Three-dimensional reconstruction and tsunami model of the Nuuanu and Wailau giant landslides, Hawaii, in Hawaiian Volcanoes: Deep Underwater Perspectives, edited by Takahashi et al., AGU Geophysical Monograph, 128, 333–346, 2002.
Seno, T., T. Sakurai, and S. Stein, Can the Okhotsk plate be discriminated from the North American plate?, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 11305–11351, 1996.
Silver, E., S. Day, S. Ward, G. Hoffmann, P. Llanes, A. Lyons, N. Driscoll, R. Perembo, S. John, S. Saunders, F. Taranu, L. Anton, I. Abiari, B. Appelgate, J. Engels, J. Smith, and J. Taglioides, Island arc debris avalanches and tsunami generation, Eos Trans. AGU, 86, 485, 489, 2005.
Tanioka, Y., K. Satake, and L. Ruff, Total analysis of the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake using seismic wave, tsunami, and geodetic data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 9–12, 1995.
Tinti, S., E. Bortolucci, and C. Vannini, A block-based theoretical model suited to gravitational sliding, Nat. Hazards, 16, 1–28, 1997.
Tinti, S., A. Maramai, A. Armigliato, L. Graziani, A. Manucci, G. Pagnoni, and F. Zaniboni, Observations of physical effects from tsunamis of December 30, 2002 at Stromboli volcano, southern Italy, Bull. Volcanol., 68, 450–561, 2005.
Tsuji, Y., W. S. Baek, K. S. Chu, and H. S. An, Report of the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake tsunami along the east coast of the Republic of Korea, Review of Research for Disaster Prevention, No.90, National Research Center for Disaster Prevention, Ibaraki, Japan, 96 pp., 1985 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Tsuji, Y., T. Nishihata, T. Sato, and K. Sato, Distribution of heights of the tsunami caused by the 1741 Kampo eruption of volcano Oshima- Oshima, Hokkaido, Gekkan Kaiyo special issue, 28, 15–44, 2002 (in Japanese).
Voight, B., Time scale for the first moments of the May 18 eruption, in The 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, edited by P. W. Lipman and D. R. Mullineaux, USGS Professional Paper, 1250, pp. 69–86, 1981.
Voight, B., H. Glicken, R. J. Janda, and P. M. Douglass, Catastrophic rockslide avalanche of May 18, in The 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, edited by P. W. Lipman and D. R. Mullineaux, USGS Professional Paper, 1250, pp. 347–377, 1981.
Ward, S. N, Landslide tsunami, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 11201–11216, 2001.
Ward, S. N. and S. Day, Ritter Island Volcano- Lateral collapse and the tsunami of 1888, Geophys. J. Int., 154, 891–902, 2003.
Watts, P., S. T. Grilli, D. R. Tappin, and G. J. Fryer, Tsunami Generation by Submarine Mass Failure. II: Predictive equations and case studies, J. Waterway, Port, Coastal Ocean Engin, 131, 298–310, 2005.
Wei, D. and T. Seno, Determination of the Amurian plate motion, in Mantle Dynamics and Plate Interactions in East Asia, edited by Flower et al., AGU Geodynamics Series, 27, pp. 337–346, 1998.
Wessel, P. and W. H. F. Smith, New, improved version of Generic Mapping Tools released, Eos Trans. AGU, 79, 579, 1998.
About this article
Cite this article
Satake, K. Volcanic origin of the 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami in the Japan Sea. Earth Planet Sp 59, 381–390 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352698
- volcanic tsunami
- sector collapse
- Japan Sea