- Open Access
Evidence for an elevated 410 km discontinuity below the Luzon, Philippines region and transition zone properties using seismic stations in Taiwan and earthquake sources to the south
Earth, Planets and Space volume 59, pages523–539(2007)
P waves from earthquakes south of Taiwan, recorded by seismic stations within and around Taiwan, were used to define two average wavespeed models WPSP01 and WPSP02 for the upper mantle and transition zone below the Luzon region. Wavespeeds are characteristic of oceanic upper mantle. The 410-km discontinuity, however, appears to be elevated to about 325 km depth, based on clear identification of the travel-time branch produced by refraction within the transition zone, and estimates of its first and second derivatives with respect to distance. A plausible explanation is low temperatures within the subducted South China Sea plate. The data also imply relatively low wavespeed jumps of 0.6–1.0% and 1.1–1.5% respectively across the elevated 410-km discontinuity and a lower discontinuity at 676 km depth, and high wavespeed gradients in the transition zone. Phase-weighted stacking on a cluster of short-period seismograms with first arrival energy from within the transition zone provides independent support for the validity of the models; later arrivals are detected close to the predicted times and slownesses for energy emerging from the lowermost upper mantle and the top of the lower mantle. An additional arrival on the stacks may be caused by a localized discontinuity near 530 km depth.
Anderson, D. L. and J. D. Bass, Mineralogy and composition of the upper mantle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 11, 637–640, 1984.
Anderson, D. L. and M. N. Toksoz, Surface waves on a spherical earth, 1, upper mantle structure from Love waves, J. Geophys. Res., 68, 3483–3499, 1963.
Backus, G. E. and W. F. Gilbert, Uniqueness in the inversion of inaccurate gross earth data, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 266, 187–269, 1970.
Bass, J. D. and D. L. Anderson, Composition of the uppermantle: geophysical tests of two petrological models, Geophys. Res. Lett., 11, 237–240, 1984.
Bass, J. D. and F. Schilling, Editorial: Introduction to special issue on phase transitions and mantle discontinuities, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 136, 1–2, 2003.
Bautista, B. C., M. L. P. Bautista, K. Oike, F. T. Wu, and R. S. Punong- bayan, A new insight on the geometry of subducting slabs in northern Luzon, Philippines, Tectonophysics, 339, 279–310, 2001.
Bolt, B. A., Summary value smoothing of physical time series with unequal intervals, J. Comput. Phys., 29, 357–369, 1978.
Chen, Y.-H., S. W. Roecker, and G. L. Kosarev, Elevation of the 410 km discontinuity beneath the central Tien Shan: Evidence for a detached lithosphere root, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1531–1534, 1997.
Chen, P.-F, B.-S. Huang, and W.-T. Liang, Evidence of a slab-subducted lithosphere beneath central Taiwan from seismic waveforms and travel times, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.229, 61–71, 2004.
Collier, J. D. and G. R. Hellfrich, Topography of the “410” and “660” km seismic discontinuities in the Izu-Bonin subduction zone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1535–1538, 1997.
Cummins, P. R., B. L. N. Kennett, J. R. Bowman, and M. G. Bostock, The 520 km discontinuity?, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 82, 232–236, 1992.
Duffy, T. S. and D. L. Anderson, Seismic velocities in mantle minerals and the mineralogy of the upper mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 1895–1912, 1989.
Duffy, T. S., C.-S. Zha, R. T. Downs, H.-K. Mao, and R. J. Hemley, Elasticity of forsterite to 16 GPa and the composition of the upper mantle, Nature, 378, 170–173, 1995.
Flanagan, M. P. and P. M. Shearer, Global mapping of topography on transition zone velocity discontinuities by stacking SS precursors, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 2673–2692, 1998.
Fujisawa, H., Elastic wave velocities of forsterite and its β-spinel form and chemical boundary hypothesis for the 410-km discontinuity, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 9591–9608, 1998.
Ibrahim, A. K. and O. W. Nuttli, Travel-time curves and upper mantle structure from long-period S waves, Bull Seismol. Soc. Am., 57, 1063–1092, 1967.
Ita, J. and L. Stixrude, Petrology, elasticity and composition of the mantle transition zone, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 6849–6866, 1992.
Kagan, Y., Accuracy of modern global earthquake catalogs, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 135, 173–209, 2003.
Kaiho, K. and B. L. N. Kennett, Three-dimensional seismic structure beneath the Australian region from refracted wave observations, Geophys. J. Int., 142, 651–668, 2000.
Kato, M. and I. Nakanishi, Upper mantle velocity structure in the western Pacific rim estimated from short-period recordings at Matsushiro Seismic Array System, Earth Planets Space, 52, 459–466, 2000.
Kennett, B. L. N. (Ed.), IASPEI1991 Seismological Tables, 167 pp., Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 1991.
Kim, K.-H., J.-M. Chiu, H. Kao, Q. Liu, and Y.-H. Yeh, A preliminary study of crustal structure in Taiwan region using receiver function analysis, Geophys. J. Int., 159, 146–164, 2004.
Li, B., R. C. Liebermann, and D. J. Weidner, Elastic moduli of wadsleyite (\-Mg2SiO4) to 7 gigapascals and 873 kelvin, Science, 281, 675–677, 1998.
Li, X., S. V. Sobolev, R. Kind, X. Yuan, and C. Estabrook, A detailed receiver function image of the upper mantle discontinuities in the Japan subduction zone, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 183, 527–541, 2000.
Ma, K.-F., J.-H. Wang, and D. Zhao, Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Taiwan, J. Phys. Earth, 44, 85–105, 1996.
Negredo, A. M., J. L. Valera, and E. Carminati, TEMSPOL: a MATLAB thermal model for deep subduction zones including major phase transformations, Computers and Geosciences, 30, 249–258, 2004.
Niazi, M. and D. L. Anderson, Upper mantle structure of western North America from apparent velocities of P waves, J. Geophys. Res., 70, 4633–4640, 1965.
Nishihara, Y and E. Takahashi, Phase relation and physical properties of Al-depleted komatiite to 23 GPa, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 190, 65–77, 2001.
Nowack, R. L., E. Ay, W.-P Chen, and B.-S. Huang, A seismic profile of the upper mantle along the south western edge of the Philippine Sea plate using short-period array data, Geophys, J. Int., 136, 171–179, 1999.
Okamoto, K. and S. Maruyama, The eclogite-garnetite transformation in the MORB + H2O system, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 146, 283–296, 2004.
Ram, A. and R. F. Mereu, Lateral variations in upper mantle structure around India as obtained from Gauribidanur seismic array data, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc, 49, 87–113, 1977.
Revenaugh, J. S. and T. H. Jordan, Mantle layering from ScS reverberation, 2, The transition zone, J Geophys. Res., 103, 2673–2692, 1991.
Ringwood, A. E., A model for the upper mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 67, 857–867, 1962.
Ringwood, A. E., Phase transformations and their bearing on the constitution and dynamics of the mantle, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 55, 2083–2110, 1991.
Schimmel, M. and H. Paulssen, Noise reduction and detection of weak, coherent signals though phase-weighted stacks, Geophys. J. Int., 130, 497–505, 1997.
Schmeling, H., R. Monz, and D. C. Rubie, The influence of olivine metastability on the dynamics of subduction, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 165, 55–66, 1999.
Shearer, P. M., Seismic imaging of upper mantle structure with new evidence for a 520-km discontinuity, Nature, 344, 121–126, 1990.
Shearer, P., Introduction to Seismology, 260 pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1999.
Shearer, P. M. and M. P. Flanagan, Seismic velocity and density jumps across the 410- and 660-kilometer discontinuities, Science, 285, 1545–1548, 1999.
Simon, R. E., C. Wright, E. M. Kgaswane, and M. T. O. Kwadiba, The P wavespeed structure below and around the Kaapvaal craton to depths of 800 km, from traveltimes and waveforms of local and regional earthquakes and mining-induced tremors, Geophys. J. Int., 151, 132–145, 2002.
Simon, R. E., C. Wright, M. T. O. Kwadiba, and E. M. Kgaswane, Mantle structure and composition to 800-km depth beneath southern Africa and surrounding oceans from broadband body waves, Lithos Special Issue: The Slave-Kaapvaal Workshop: A Tale of Two Cratons, edited by A. G. Jones, R. W. Carlson, and H. Grutter, 71, 353–367, 2003.
Simpson, D. W., R. F. Mereu, and D. W. King, An array study of P wave velocities in the upper mantle transition zone beneath northwestern Australia, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 64, 1757–1788, 1974.
Sinogeikin, S. V., J. D. Bass, and T. Katsura, Single-crystal elasticity of ringwoodite to high pressures and high temperatures: implications for 520 km discontinuity, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 136, 41–66, 2003.
Vidale, J. E. and H. M. Benz, Upper-mantle seismic discontinuities and the thermal structure of subduction zones, Nature, 356, 678–683, 1992.
Vinnik, L., Detection of waves converted from P to SV in the mantle, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 15, 39–45, 1977.
Walck, M. C., The P wave upper mantle structure beneath an active spreading center: the Gulf of California, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 76, 697–723, 1984.
Wessel, P. and W. H. F. Smith, New version of the Generic Mapping Tools released, EOS Trans. Am. Geophys U., 76, 329, 1995.
Wiggins, R. A., G. A. McMechan, and M. N. Toksöz, Range of earth structure nonuniqueness implied by body wave observations, Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 11, 87–113, 1973.
Wright, C., The LSDARC method of seismic refraction analysis: principles, practical considerations and advantages, Near Surface Geophysics, 4, 187–200, 2006.
Wright, C., The P wavespeed structure in the upper mantle and transition zone below the western margin of the Philippine Sea plate; geodynamic implications, Tectonophysics, 2007 (in press).
Wright, C., K. J. Muirhead, and A. E. Dixon, The P wave velocity structure near the base of the mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 623–634, 1985.
Wright, C., M. T. O. Kwadiba, E. M. Kgaswane, and R. E. Simon, The structure of the crust and upper mantle to depths of 320 km beneath the Kaapvaal craton, from P wave arrivals generated by regional earthquakes and mining-induced tremors, J. Afr. Earth Sci., 35, 477–488, 2002.
Yang, T.-F., T. Lee, C.-H. Chen, S.-N. Cheng, U. Knittel, R. S. Punong-bayan, and A. R. Rasdas, A double island arc between Taiwan and Luzon: consequence of ridge subduction, Tectonophysics, 258, 85–101, 1996.
Zhao, M., C. A. Langston, and A. A. Nyblade, Upper mantle velocity structure beneath southern Africa from modeling regional seismic data, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 4783–4794, 1999.
About this article
Cite this article
Wright, C., Kuo, B. Evidence for an elevated 410 km discontinuity below the Luzon, Philippines region and transition zone properties using seismic stations in Taiwan and earthquake sources to the south. Earth Planet Sp 59, 523–539 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352715
- Philippine Sea plate
- upper mantle
- transition zone