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The 2004 Las Campanas/Lowell Observatory campaign II. Surface properties of Hayabusa target Asteroid 25143 Itokawa inferred from Hapke modeling
Earth, Planets and Space volume 60, pages49–59(2008)
We present an analysis of Hapke photometric modeling applied to uniform ground-based UBVRIJHK broadband data of asteroid 25143 Itokawa collected over a wide range of solar phase angles (4°–130°) during the 2004 apparition (Thomas-Osip et al., this issue, hereafter Paper I). Our photometric analyses indicate that Itokawa has a blocky surface with properties different from other, albeit larger, S-class asteroids studied using similar Hapke modeling analyses. Images from the Hayabusa spacecraft affirm the Hapke modeling results, demonstrating the ability of Hapke photometric modeling to predict a rocky asteroid surface correctly; this is the first time that a predicted rocky surface has been observed by a spacecraft. The single particle scattering functions are dominantly forward scattering, suggesting the surface material is composed primarily of clear particles whose scattering is dictated by the particle’s surface as opposed to internal scatterers (more typical of S-class asteroids), while the opposition parameters indicate that the regolith may be more compact than most of the limited number of asteroids visited by spacecraft to date. The roughness properties, single particle scattering properties, and opposition surge characteristics are all indicative of a surface where multiple scattering does not play a major role in defining the photometric properties of the regolith.
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Lederer, S.M., Domingue, D.L., Thomas-Osip, J.E. et al. The 2004 Las Campanas/Lowell Observatory campaign II. Surface properties of Hayabusa target Asteroid 25143 Itokawa inferred from Hapke modeling. Earth Planet Sp 60, 49–59 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352761