Special Issue: Lunar Science with the SELENE “Kaguya” Mission-Prelaunch Studies-
- Open Access
Ground calibration of the high-sensitivity SELENE lunar magnetometer LMAG
Earth, Planets and Space volume 60, pages 353–363 (2008)
Ground calibration experiments of the SELENE high sensitivity fluxgate Lunar Magnetometer (LMAG) have been performed in order to determine the alignment, sensitivity, and offset of the sensors (MGF-S). It is checked out that the sensors are orthogonal to each other within 0.4 degrees, and the linearity of the ambient magnetic field and the output from the sensors are confirmed. Also, the temperature dependences of the offset and sensitivity are examined but no clear signatures of temperature dependencies can be seen. SELENE has an in-flight calibration system in order to determine the direction of the magnetometer routinely. The magnetic fields generated by the sensor alignment monitor coil (SAM-C) system are used for the in-flight calibration. The magnetic field distributions generated by SAM-C are determined and the accuracy of determination of the magnetometer position and direction is estimated. Multiple measurements will allow us to determine the direction of MGF-S with about 0.1-degree accuracy. Appropriate corrections from the results of the ground and in-flight calibrations will allow us to recover the magnetic field near the moon with accuracy about 0.1 nT.
Anderson, B. J., L. J. Zanetti, D. H. Lohr, J. R. Hayes, M. H. Acuña, C. T. Russell, and T. Mulligan, In-flight calibration of the NEAR magnetometer, IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39, 907–917, 2001.
Dougherty, M. K., S. Kellock, D. J. Southwood, A. Balogh, E. J. Smith, B. T. Tsurutani, B. Gerlach, K.-H. Glassmeier, F. Gleim, C. T. Russell, G. Erdos, F. M. Neubauer, and S. W. H. Cowley, The Cassini magnetic field investigation, Space Science Rev., 114, 331–383, 2004.
Dyal, P., C. W. Parkin, and W. D. Daily, Lunar electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability, Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 6th, 2909–2926, 1975.
Dyal, P., C.W. Parkin, and W. D. Daily, Structure of the lunar interior from magnetic field measurements, Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 7th, 3077–3095, 1976.
Halekas, J. S., D. L. Mitchell, R. P. Lin, S. Frey, L. L. Hood, M. H. Acuña, and A. B. Binder, Mapping of crustal magnetic anomalies on the lunar near side by the Lunar Prospector electron reflectometer, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 27841–27852, 2001.
Hobbs, B. A., The inverse problem of the moon’s electrical conductivity, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 17, 380–384, 1973.
Hood, L. L., Magnetic field and remanent magnetization effects of basinforming impacts on the moon, Geophys. Res. Lett., 14, 844–847, 1987.
Hood, L. L. and G. Schubert, Lunar magnetic anomalies and surface optical properties, Science, 208, 49–51, 1980.
Hood, L. L., P. J. Coleman, Jr., and D. E. Wilhelms, The moon: sources of the crustal magnetic anomalies, Science, 204, 53–57, 1979.
Hood, L. L., F. Herbert, and C. P. Sonett, The deep lunar electrical conductivity profile: Structural and thermal inferences, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 5311–5326, 1982.
Hood, L. L., D. L. Mitchell, R. P. Lin, M. H. Acuña, and A. B. Binder, Initial measurements of lunar induced magnetic dipole moment using Lunar Prospector magnetomter, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2327–2330, 1999.
Hood, L. L., A. Zakharian, J. Halekas, D. L. Mitchell, R. P. Lin, M. H. Acuña, and A. B. Binder, Initial mapping and interpretation of lunar crustal magnetic anomalies using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 27825–27839, 2001.
Kurata, M., H. Tsunakawa, Y. Saito, H. Shibuya, M. Matsushima, and H. Shimizu, Mini-magnetosphere over the Reiner Gamma magnetic anomaly region on the moon, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24205, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024097, 2005.
Lee, D. C., A. N. Halliday, G. A. Snyder, and L. A. Taylor, Age and origin of the moon, Science, 278, 1098–1103, 1997.
Lohr, D. A., L. J. Zanetti, B. J. Anderson, T. A. Potemra, J. R. Hayes, R. E. Gold, R. M. Henshaw, F. F. Mobrey, and D. B. Holland, NEAR magnetic field investigation, instrumentation, spacecraft magnetic and data access, Space Science Rev., 82, 225–281, 1997.
Olsen, N., L. Toeffiner-Clausen, T. J. Sabaka, P. Brauer, J. M. G. Merayo, J. L. Joergensen, J.-M. Léger, O. V. Nielsen, F. Primdahl, and T. Risbo, Calibration of the Oersted vector magnetometer, Earth Planets Space, 55, 11–18, 2003.
Righter, K., Does the moon have a metallic core? Constraints from giant impact modeling and siderophile elements, Icarus, 158, 1–13, 2002.
Risbo, T., P. Brauer, J. M. G. Merayo, O. V. Nielsen, J. R. Petersen, F. Primdahl, and I. Richter, Oersted pre-flight magnetometer calibration mission, Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, 674–688, 2003.
Runcorn, S. K., The formation of the lunar core, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 60, 1205–1208, 1996.
Russell, C. T., P. J. Coleman, Jr., and B. E. Goldstein, Measurements of the lunar induced magnetic moment in the geomagnetic tail: Evidence for a lunar core?, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 12, 831–836, 1981.
Toyoshima, M., H. Shibuya, M. Matsushima, H. Shimizu, and H. Tsunakawa, Equivalent source mapping of the lunar crustal magnetic field using ABIC, Earth Planets Space, 60, this issue, 365–373, 2008.
Yamamoto, T., S. Kokubun, and GEOTAIL/PLANET-B MGF Team, Ground calibration of high-sensitivity magnetometers for spacecraft use, Uchu Kagaku Kenkyuusho Houkoku, 88, 1–24, 1996.
About this article
Cite this article
Shimizu, H., Takahashi, F., Horii, N. et al. Ground calibration of the high-sensitivity SELENE lunar magnetometer LMAG. Earth Planet Sp 60, 353–363 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352800
- SELENE project
- ground calibration
- in-flight calibration