Skip to main content

Advertisement

You are viewing the new article page. Let us know what you think. Return to old version

Letter | Open | Published:

Depth estimation of fumarolic gas source deduced by fume pressure measurement

Abstract

The origin of fumarolic gas is hydrothermal boiling in the active fumarolic area and magma degassing in the active volcano where high temperature gas is discharged. The determination of the fumarolic gas source is important for understanding the geothermal activity or the eruption process. However, it is difficult to determine the gas source by geophysical prospecting using seismic or geomagnetic techniques due to the resolution limitation of these techniques. New measurement tools are therefore necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the conduit length—i.e., the depth of the fumarolic gas source—by measuring the fume pressure, which in turn facilitates the determination of the pressure oscillation of a conduit generated by acoustic resonance. We initially assembled the measuring device and measured the fume pressure at an active fumarole in Kusatsu-Shirane volcano, Japan. Our measuring device succeeded in measuring the pressure oscillation generated by acoustic resonance, revealing that the fumarolic gas source at Kusatsu-Shirane volcano has a depth of approximately 40 m. We propose that the use of an acoustic resonance is an effective approach for deducing the fumarolic gas source.

References

  1. Hashimoto, T., T. Mogi, Y. Nishida, Y. Ogawa, J. Hirabayashi, M. Oikawa, M. Saito, S. Mizuhashi, N. Ujihira, Nurhasan, and T. Wakabayashi, High-density electrical sounding and self-potential profiling at Kusatsu-Shirane volcano, 4th Joint Observation of Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano (July–November 2003), 133–142, 2004 (in Japanese).

  2. Ichinomiya, R. and S. Sakamoto, A new method of measuring length of pipe by means of sound signals (Detecting resonant frequency of air column in pipe), JSME Int. J., 57, 2217–2223, 1991 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  3. Latham, F. G., An acoustic resonance technique for finding breaks in Gas-Filled pipes, Appl. Acoustics, 8, 119–132, 1975.

  4. Levine, H. and J. Schwinger, On the radiation of sound from an unflanged circular pipe, Phys. Rev., 73, 383–406, 1948.

  5. Maryanto, S., M. Iguchi, and T. Tameguri, Constraints on the source mechanism of harmonic tremors based on seismological, ground deformation, and visual observations, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2007.10.004, 2008 (in press).

  6. Mori, T., Y. Sudo, T. Tsutsui, and S. Yoshikawa, Characteristics of isolated hybrid tremor (HBT) during a calm activity period at Aso Volcano, Bull. Volcanol., doi:10.1007/s00445-007-0185-7, 2008 (in press).

  7. Nurhasan, Y. Ogawa, N. Ujihara, S. B. Tank, Y. Honkura, S. Onizawa, T. Mori, and M. Makino, Two electrical conductors beneath Kusatsu-Shirane volcano, Japan, imaged by audiomagnetotellurics, and their implications for the hydrothermal system, Earth Planets Space, 58, 1053–1059, 2005.

  8. Ohwada, M., T. Ohba, J. Hirabayashi, K. Nogami, K. Nakamura, and K. Nagao, Interaction between magmatic fluid and meteoric water, inferred from 18O/16O and 36Ar/H2O ratios of fumarolic gases at the Kusatsu Shirane volcano, Japan, Earth Planets Space, 55, 105–110, 2003.

  9. Onizawa, S., T. Mori, T. Tsutsui, J. Hirabayashi, K. Nogami, Y. Ogawa, T. Matsishima, and A. Suzuki, Shallow P-wave velocity structure of Shirane pyroclastic cone, Kusatsu-Shirane volcano derived from a controlled seismic experiment, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Jpn., 50, 9–16, 2005 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  10. Saito, G., H. Shinohara, and S. Matsuo, Effect of flow velocity on temperature and chemical composition of fumarolic gases at Mt. Usu, Hokkaido, Japan, Rendiconti della Societá Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrologia, 43, 1253–1263, 1988.

  11. Schlindwein, V., J. Wassermann, and F. Scherbaum, Spectral analysis of harmonic tremor signals at Mt. Semeru volcano, Indonesia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(13), 1685–1688, 1995.

  12. Tameguri, T., S. Maryanto, and M. Iguchi, Source Mechanisms of Harmonic Tremors at Sakurajima Volcano, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Jpn., 52, 273–279, 2007.

  13. Tsutsui, T. and Y. Sudo, Seismic reflectors beneath the central cones of Aso Volcano, Kyushu, Japan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 131, 33–58, 2004.

  14. Yamamoto, M., H. Kawakatsu, S. Kaneshima, T. Mori, T. Tsutsui, Y. Sudo, and Y. Morita, Detection of a crack-like conduit beneath the active crater at Aso volcano, Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(24), 3677–3680, 1999.

  15. Yamasaki, T., M. Hayashi, A. Koga, T. Noda, and M. Fukuda, Steam wells at the Yunotani geothermal field in Aso caldera and its exploration, J. Geotherm. Res. Soc. Jpn., 15, 19–30, 1978 (in Japanese with English abstract).

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Takehiko Mori.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Key words

  • Fumarolic gas source
  • acoustic resonance
  • fume pressure