Skip to main content

Volume 61 Supplement 1

Special Issue: Magnetism of Volcanic Materials-Tribute to Works of Michel Prévot

Paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study on volcanic units of the Valsequillo Basin: implications for early human occupation in central Mexico

Abstract

Alleged human and animal footprints were found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in the Valsequillo Basin, south of Puebla, Mexico (Gonzalez et al, 2005). The ash has been dated at 40 ka by optically stimulated luminescence analysis, thereby providing new evidence that America was colonized earlier than the Clovis culture (about 13.5 Ma). We carried out paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analysis on 18 Xalnene ash block and core samples collected at two distinct localities and 19 standard paleomagnetic cores belonging to nearby monogenetic volcanoes. Our data provide evidence that both the volcanic lava flow and Xalnene ash were emplaced during the Laschamp geomagnetic event spanning from about 45 to 39 ka.

References

  • Armenta-Camacho, J., Hallazgo de un artefacto asociado con mamut en el Valle de Puebla, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Di-rección Prehistoria Publicació n, 7, 7–25, 1959.

    Google Scholar 

  • Armenta-Camacho, J., Vestigios de labor humana en huesos de animales extinctos de Valsequillo, Puebla, México, Consejo Editorial del Estado de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico, 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bonhommet, N., Paleomagnetism and K-Ar age determination of the Lashamp geomagnetic polarity event, Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett., 6, 43–50, 1969.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bradley, F. and D. Stanford, The north atlantic ice-edge corridor: a possible palaeolitic route to the new world, World Archaeology, 36, 459–478, 2004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Calvo-Rathert, M., D. Sologashvili, A. Gogichaishvili, J. J. Villaláin, M. F. Bógalo, A. Carrancho, and G. Maissuradze, New Paleomagnetic Data from the Dmanisi Paleo-Anthropologic Site (Georgia, Caucasus), Quaternary Res., doi: 10.1016/j.yqres.2007.09.001, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cande, S. C. and D. V. Kent, Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity time scale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 6093–6095, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coe, R., Paleointensity of the Earth’s magnetic field determined from Tertiary and Quaternary rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 3247–3262, 1967.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coe, R., S. Grommé, and E. A. Mankinen, Geomagnetic paleointensity from radiocarbon-dated flows on Hawaii and the question of the Pacific nondipole low, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 1740–1756, 1978.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Day, R., M. Fuller, and V. A. Schmidt, Hysteresis properties of titanomag-netites: Grain-size and compositional dependence, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 13, 260–267, 1977.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dixon, E., Human colonization of the Americas: timing, technology and process, Quater. Sci. Rev., 20, 277–299, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dunlop, D. J., Theory and application of the Day plot (Mrs/Ms versus Hcr/Hc), Theoretical curves and tests using titanomagnetite data, J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JB000486, 2002.

  • Dunlop, D. and Ö. Özdemir, Rock-Magnetism, fundamentals and frontiers, 573 pp., Cambridge University Press, 1997.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Feinberg, J. M., P. R. Renne, M. R. Waters, J. Arroyo-Cabrales, P. Ochoa-Castillo, and M. Perez-Campa, Age of the Xalnene Ash, Central Mexico: A rock magnetic perspective, Eos Trans. AGU, Joint Assembly, Abstract GP24A-07, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fiedel, S. J., The peopling of new world: present evidence, new theories and future directions, J. Archeol. Res., 8, 39–101, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fujita, H., M. Duarte, and L. F. Bate, Una probable ocupación desde el Pleistoceno en la Covacha Babisuri, Isla Espiritu Santo, Baja California Sur, México, in: El hombre temprano en América, CONACULTA-INAH, pp. 61–73, 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goguitchaichvili, A., M. Prévot, J. M. Dautria, and M. Bacia, Thermo-detrital and crystalline magnetizations in an Icelandic hyaloclastite, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 29219–29239, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goguitchaichvili, A., A. N. Martin del Pozo, J. Urrutia-Fucugauchi, and A. Soler-Arechalde, Human footprints found in Central Mexico could be at least 40,000 years old, Geof. Int., 46, 84–87, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez, S., D. Huddart, M. R. Bennet, and A. Gonzalez-Huesca, a, Quaternary Sci. Rev., doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.10.004, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez, A. H., C. Rosas Sandoval, A. Terrazas Mata, M. Benavente Sanvicente, and W. Stinnesback, Doblamiento temprano en la Península de Yucatán: evidencias localizadas en cuevas sumergidas de Quintana Roo, México, in: El hombre temprano en América, CONACULTA-INAH, pp. 73–90, 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guillou, H., B. S. Singer, C. Laj, C. Kissel, S. Scaillet, and B. R. Jicha, On the age of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 227, 331–338. 2004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gubbins, D., The distinction between geomagnetic excursions and reversals, Geophys. J. Int., 137, F1–F3, 1999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hasenaka, T., Size, distribution, and magma output rate for shield volcanoes of the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field, Central Mexico, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 63, 13–31, 1994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hasenaka, T. and S. E. Carmichael, The cinder cones of Michoacan-Guanajuato, central Mexico: petrology and chemistry, J. Petrol., 28, 241–269, 1987.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirschvink, J. L., The least-square line and plane and analysis of palaeo-magnetic data, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 62, 699–718, 1980.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knudsen, M. F., N. Abrahamsen, and P. Riisager, Paleomagnetic evidence from Cape Verde Islands basalts for fully reversed excursions in the Brunhes Chron, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 206, 199–214, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luhr, J. F. and S. E. Carmichael, Jorullo Volcano, Michoacan, Mexico (1759-1774): The earliest stage of fractionation in calc-alkaline magmas, Contrib. Mineral Petrol., 90, 142–161, 1985.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luhr, J. F. and T. Siminik, Paricutin. The volcano born in a Mexican cornfield, pp. 427, Geoscience Press, Inc., Arizona, USA, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, E., Pre-Clovis Sites Fight for Acceptance, Science, 291, 1730–1732, 2001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merrill, R. T. and P. L. McFadden, Geomagnetic field stabuility: Reversal events and excursions, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 121, 57–69, 1994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mioti, L. L., La fachada atlántica, como puerta de ingreso alternativa de la colonización humana de America del Sur durante la transición Pleis-toceno/Holoceno, in: El hombre temprano en América, CONACULTA-INAH, pp. 155–188, 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ochoa-Castillo, P., M. Perez-Campa, A. L. Martin del Pozo, and J. Arroyo-Carbales, New excavacions in Valsequillo, Puebla, Mexico, Curr. Res. Pleistocene, 20, 61–63. 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parés, J. M. and A. Pérez-González, Paleomagnetic age for hominid fossils at Atapuerca archaeological site, Spain, Science, 269, 830–832, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petronille, M., A. Goguitchaichvili, B. Henry, L. Alva-Valdivia, J. Rosas-Elguera, M. Rodríguez Ceja, and M. Calvo-Rathert, Paleomagnetism of Ar-Ar dated lava flows from the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field (western Mexico): Evidence for the Matuyama-Brunhes transition precursor and a fully reversed geomagnetic event in the Brunhes chron, J. Geophys. Res., 110, b08101, doi:10.1029/2004jb003321, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pichardo, M., Valsequillo biostratigraphy: new evidence for pre-clovis date, Anthropol. Anzeiger, 55, 233–246, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Prévot, M., R. S. Mainkinen, S. Grommé, and A. Lecaille, High paleoin-tensity of the geomagnetic field from thermomagnetic studies on rift valley pillow basalts from the middle Atlantic ridge, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 2316–2326, 1983.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prévot, M., R. S. Mainkinen, R. Coe, and S. Grommé, The Steens Mountain (Oregon) geomagnetic polarity transition 2. Field intensity variations and discussion of reversal models, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 10417–10448, 1985.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Renne, P. R., J. M. Feinberg, M. R. Waters, J. Arroyo-Cabrales, P. Ochoa-Castillo, M. Perez-Campa, and K. B. Knight, Age of Mexican ash with alleged ‘footprints’, Nature, doi:1038/04425, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  • Steen-McIntyre, V., R. Fryxell, and H. E. Malde, Geologic Evidence for Age of Deposits at Hueyatlaco Archaeological Site, Valsequillo, Mexico, Quater. Res., 16, 1–17, 1981.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Szabo, B. J., H. E. Malde, and C. Irwin-Wiliams, Dilemma posed by uranium-series dates on archeologically significant bones from Valse-quillo, Mexico, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 6, 237–244, 1969.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tauxe, L., T. A. T. Mullender, and T. Pick, Potbellies, wasp-waists, and su-perparamagnetism in magnetic hysteresis, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 571–583, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thellier, E. and O. Thellier, Sur l’intensité du champ magnétique terrestre dans le passé historique et géologique, Ann. Geophys., 15, 285–376, 1959.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhu, R., Q. Liu, H. Yao, Z. Guo, C. Deng, Y. Pan, L. Lü, Z. Chang, and F. Gao, Magnetostratigraphic dating of hominoid-bearing sediments at Zhupeng, Yuanmou Basin, southwestern China, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 236, 559–568, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Avto Goguitchaichvili.

Rights and permissions

Open Access  This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Goguitchaichvili, A., Pozzo, A.L.MD., Rocha-Fernandez, J.L. et al. Paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study on volcanic units of the Valsequillo Basin: implications for early human occupation in central Mexico. Earth Planet Sp 61, 205–211 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352900

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352900

Key words

  • Paleomagnetism
  • volcanic ash
  • central Mexico
  • Lashamp event
  • human evolution