- Open Access
Estimation of scan-gap limits on phase delay connections in Delta VLBI observations based on the phase structure function at a short time period
Earth, Planets and Space volume 61, pages357–371(2009)
The maximum scan-gap length which connects phase delays from scan to scan over a gap is an important issue in Delta Very Long Baseline Interferometry (D-VLBI), and it is affected by delay fluctuations caused by the wet troposphere. It has recently become possible to obtain near real-time fringe phases by using an e-VLBI technique that realizes real-time VLBI by connecting stations through high-speed Internet. Such real-time VLBI raises the possibility of dynamic D-VLBI scheduling, which changes scan and gap length dynamically according to the weather condition of the date. We have investigated this possibility by using phase structure functions obtained from continuous VLBI observations at S- and X-bands for 1–2 h at the Kashima, Gifu, and Koganei stations (not real-time ones). Five VLBI sessions were conducted during this study between March and July 2006 under different weather conditions. At first a simple method was developed to evaluate phase connectivity from a phase structure function. A model was also proposed to estimate a phase-structure function at longer time periods from a short time period. Finally, an available gap length was estimated using the model. Our results show that it is possible to estimate an available scan gap length by using a structure function at a time period of 10 s. This suggests that it is possible to control scan length and gap length dynamically in order to achieve the best performance of D-VLBI observations.
Beasley, A. J. and J. E. Conway, VLBI phase-referencing, in Very Long Baseline Interferometry and the VLBA, ASP Conf. Ser. 82, edited by J. A. Zensus, P. J. Diamond, and P. J. Napier, 327–343, 1995.
Border, J. S. and J. A. Koukos, Technical characteristics and accuracy capabilities of delta differential one-way ranging (ΔDOR) as a spacecraft navigation tool, CCSDS B20.0-Y-1, Report of the Proceedings of the RF and Modulation Subpanel 1E Meeting at the German Space Operations Centre: September 20–24, 1993, edited by T. M. Nguyen, Yellow Book, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany: Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, February, 1994.
Brunn, D. L., R. A. Preston, S. C. Wu, H. L. Siegel, D. S. Brown, C. S. Christensen, and D. E. Hilt, Delta VLBI spacecraft tracking system demonstration: Part I. design and planning, DSN Progress Report 42–45, 111–132, 1978.
Christensen, C. S., B. Moultrie, P. S. Callahan, F. F. Donivan, and S. C. Wu, Delta VLBI spacecraft tracking system demonstration: Part II: data acquisition and processing, TDA Progress Report 42–60, 60–67, 1980.
Fujiwara, A., T. Mukai, J. Kawaguchi, and K. T. Uesugi, Sample return mission to NEA: MUSES-C, Advances in Space Research, 25, 231–238, 1999.
Ichikawa, R., M. Sekido, H. Osaki, Y. Koyama, T. Kondo, T. Ohnishi, M. Yoshikawa, W. Cannon, A. Novikov, M. Berube, and NOZOMI DVLBI GROUP, An evaluation of VLBI observations for the deep space tracking on the interplanetary spacecrafts, in International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2004 General Meeting Proceedings, edited by Nancy R. Vandenberg and Karen D. Baver, NASA/CP-2004-212255, 253–257, 2004.
Ichikawa, R., M. Sekido, Y. Koyama, and T. Kondo, An evaluation of atmospheric path delay correction in differential VLBI experiments for spacecraft tracking, in International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2006 General Meeting Proceedings, edited by D. Behrend and K. D. Baver, NASA/CP-2006-214140, 226–230, 2006.
Kasuga, T., M. Ishiguro, and R. Kawabe, Interferometric measurement of tropospheric phase fluctuations at 22 GHz on antenna spacings of 27 to 540 m, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-34, 797–803, 1986.
Kikuchi, F., Y. Kono, M. Yoshikawa, M. Sekido, M. Ohnishi, Y. Murata, J. Ping, Q. Liu, K. Matsumoto, K. Asari, S. Tsuruta, H. Hanada, and N. Kawano, VLBI observation of narrow bandwidth signals from the spacecraft, Earth Planets Space, 56, 1041–1047, 2004.
Kondo, T., Y. Koyama, J. Nakajima, M. Sekido, and H. Osaki, Internet VLBI system based on the PC-VSSP (IP-VLBI) board, in New Technologies in VLBI, ASP Conf. Ser. 306, edited by Minh, Y. C., 205–216, 2003.
Kondo, T., M. Kimura, Y. Koyama, and H. Osaki, Current status of software correlators developed at Kashima Space Research Center, in International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2004 General Meeting Proceedings, edited by Nancy R. Vandenberg and Karen D. Baver, NASA/CP-2004-212255, 186–190, 2004.
Kono, Y., H. Hanada, J. Ping, Y. Koyama, Y. Fukuzaki, and N. Kawano, Precise positioning of spacecrafts by multi-frequency VLBI, Earth Planets Space, 55, 581–589, 2003.
Koyama, Y., T. Kondo, M. Kimura, H. Takeuchi, and M. Hirabaru, e-VLBI developments with the K-5 system, in International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2006 General Meeting Proceedings, edited by D. Behrend and K. D. Baver, NASA/CP-2006-214140, 216–220, 2006.
Liu, Q., M. Nishio, K. Yamamura, T. Miyazaki, M. Hirata, T. Suzuyama, S. Kuji, K. Iwadate, O. Kameya, and N. Kawano, Statistical characteristics of atmospheric phase fluctuations observed by a VLBI system using a beacon wave from a geostationary satellite, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-53, 1519–1527, 2005.
Rogers, A. E. E., Very-long-baseline interferometry with large effective bandwidth for phase-delay measurements, Radio Sci., 5, 1239–1247, 1970.
Rogers, A. E. E. and J. M. Moran, Coherence limit for very long baseline interferometry, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., IM-30, 283–286, 1981.
Rogers, A. E. E., A. T. Moffet, D. C. Backer, and J. M. Moran, Coherence limits in VLBI observation at 3-millimeter wave length, Radio Sci., 19, 1552–1560, 1984.
Sekido, M., R. Ichikawa, H. Osaki, T. Kondo, Y. Koyama, M. Yoshikawa, T. Ohnishi, W. Cannon, A. Novikov, M. Berube, and NOZOMI DVLBI GROUP, VLBI observation spacecraft navigation (NOZOMI)—data processing and analysis status report, in International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2004 General Meeting Proceedings, edited by Nancy R. Vandenberg and Karen D. Baver, NASA/CP-2004-212255, 258–262, 2004.
Takahashi, F., T. Kondo, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Koyama, Very long baseline interferometer, Ohmsha, Tokyo, 2000.
Tatarskii, V. I., Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium, Dover, New York, 1961.
Thornton, C. L. and J. S. Border, Radiometric tracking techniques for deep-space navigation, John Wiley & Sons. Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2003.
Tokumaru, M., H. Mori, T. Tanaka, and T. Kondo, Evolution of the Solar Wind Structure in the Acceleration Region during (STEP Interval) 1990–1993, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 47, 1113–1120, 1995.
Treuhaft, R. N. and G. E. Lanyi, The effect of the dynamic wet troposphere on radio interferometric measurements, Radio Sci., 22, 251–265, 1987.
Whitney, A. R. and C. A. Ruszczyk, e-VLBI development at Haystack Observatory, in International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2006 General Meeting Proceedings, edited by D. Behrend and K. D. Baver, NASA/CP-2006-214140, 211–215, 2006.
Wrobel, J. M., R. C. Walker, J. M. Benson, and A. J. Beasley, VLBA scientific memorandum 24: Strategies for phase referencing with the VLBA, http://www.vlba.nrao.edu/memos/sci/sci24memo.ps, 2000.
Wu, S. C., Connection and validation of narrow-band delta VLBI phase observations, DSN Progress report 42–52, 13–20, 1979.
Yamamoto, T. and K. Tsuruda, The PLANET-B mission, Earth Planets Space, 50, 175–181, 1998.
About this article
Cite this article
Kondo, T., Hobiger, T., Sekido, M. et al. Estimation of scan-gap limits on phase delay connections in Delta VLBI observations based on the phase structure function at a short time period. Earth Planet Sp 61, 357–371 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352917
- Delta VLBI
- phase structure function
- phase connection