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Volume 61 Supplement 5

Special Issue: Flare-Substorm/Space Weather Topics

Halo coronal mass ejections and geomagnetic storms


In this letter, I show that the discrepancies in the geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) reported in the literature arise due to the varied definitions of halo CMEs used by different authors. In particular, I show that the low geoeffectiveness rate is a direct consequence of including partial halo CMEs. The geoeffectiveness of partial halo CMEs is lower because they are of low speed and likely to make a glancing impact on Earth.


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Correspondence to Nat Gopalswamy.

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Gopalswamy, N. Halo coronal mass ejections and geomagnetic storms. Earth Planet Sp 61, 595–597 (2009).

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  • Coronal mass ejections
  • geomagnetic storms
  • geoeffectiveness
  • halo CMEs