Special Issue: Flare-Substorm/Space Weather Topics
- Open Access
Halo coronal mass ejections and geomagnetic storms
Earth, Planets and Space volume 61, pages 595–597 (2009)
In this letter, I show that the discrepancies in the geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) reported in the literature arise due to the varied definitions of halo CMEs used by different authors. In particular, I show that the low geoeffectiveness rate is a direct consequence of including partial halo CMEs. The geoeffectiveness of partial halo CMEs is lower because they are of low speed and likely to make a glancing impact on Earth.
Gonzalez, W. D., J. A. Joselyn, Y. Kamide, H. W. Kroehl, G. Rostoker, B. T. Tsurutani, and V. M. Vasyliunas, What is a geomagnetic storm?, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 5771, 1994.
Gopalswamy, N., A global picture of CMEs in the inner heliosphere, in The Sun and the Heliosphere as an Integrated System, edited by G. Poletto and S. T. Suess, chap. 8, p. 201, Kluwer Acad., Boston, 2004.
Gopalswamy, N., S. Yashiro, Y. Liu, G. Michalek, A. Vourlidas, M. L. Kaiser, and R. A. Howard, Coronal mass ejections and other extreme characteristics of the 2003 October-November solar eruptions, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A09S15, doi:10.1029/2004JA010958, 2005.
Gopalswamy, N., S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama, Geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A06112, doi: 10.1029/2006JA012149, 2007.
Gopalswamy, N., S. Akiyama, S. Yashiro, G. Michalek, and R. P. Lepping, Solar sources and geospace consequences of interplanetary magnetic clouds observed during solar cycle 23, J. Atm. Sol. Terr. Phys., 70, 245, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2007.08.070, 2008.
Gosling, J. T., M. F. Thomsen, S. J. Bame, and R. D. Zwickl, The eastward deflection of fast coronal mass ejecta in interplanetary space, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 12399, 1987.
Gosling, J. T., D. J. McComas, J. L. Phillips, and S. J. Bame, Coronal mass ejections and large geomagnetic storms, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 901, 1990.
Howard, R. A., D. J. Michels, N. R. Sheeley, Jr., and M. J. Koomen, The observation of a coronal transient directed at earth, Astrophys. J., 263, L101, 1982.
Kim, R.-S., K.-S. Cho, Y.-J. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, Y. Yi, M. Dryer, S.-C. Bong, and Y.-D. Park, Forecast evaluation of the coronal mass ejection (CME) geoeffectiveness using halo CMEs from 1997 to 2003, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A11104, doi:10.1029/2005JA011218, 2005.
Michalek, G., N. Gopalswamy, A. Lara, and S. Yashiro, Properties and geoeffectiveness of halo CMEs, Space Weather, 4, S10003, doi:10.1029/2005SW000218, 2006.
St. Cyr, O. C. et al., Properties of coronal mass ejections: SOHO LASCO observations from January 1996 to June 1998, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 18,169, 2000.
Tsurutani, B. T. and W. D. Gonzalez, The interplanetary causes of magnetic storms: A review, in Magnetic Storms, edited by B. T. Tsurutani, W. D. Gonzalez, Y. Kamide, and J. K. Arballo, p. 77, AGU Monograph 98, AGU, Washington DC, 1997.
Yermolaev, Yu. I. and M. Yu. Yermolaev, Statistical relationships between solar, interplanetary, and geomagnetic disturbances, 1976–2000: 3, Cosmic Res., 41, 539, 2003.
Yermolaev, Yu. I., M. Yu. Yermolaev, G. N. Zastenker, L. M. Zelenyi, A. A. Petrukovich, and J.-A. Sauvaud, Statistical studies of geomagnetic storm dependencies on solar and interplanetary events: a review, Planet. Space Sci., 53(1–3), 189–196, 2005.
Yurchyshyn, V. B., H. Wang, P. R. Goode, and Y. Deng, Orientation of the magnetic fields in interplanetary flux ropes and solar filaments, Astrophys. J., 563, 381, 2001.
Zhang, J. et al., Solar and interplanetary sources of major geomagnetic storms (Dst-100 nT) during 1996–2005, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A10102, doi:10.1029/2007JA012321, 2007.
Zhao, X. P. and D. F. Webb, Source regions and storm effectiveness of frontside full halo coronal mass ejections, J. Geophys. Res., 108(A6), 1234, doi:10.1029/2002JA009606, 2003.
About this article
Cite this article
Gopalswamy, N. Halo coronal mass ejections and geomagnetic storms. Earth Planet Sp 61, 595–597 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03352930
- Coronal mass ejections
- geomagnetic storms
- halo CMEs