Skip to main content


We’d like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest.

Heat discharge estimation using satellite remote sensing data on the Iwodake volcano in Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan


A series of heat discharges from the Iwodake volcano was estimated using nighttime Landsat TM data. The data includes heat discharge only from steaming ground and excludes fumarole, hot spring activities and others. The heat discharge was estimated at 40–80 MW from 1989 to 1993 using temperature distributions derived from Landsat TM band 6, and started to increase since 1995. From the error analysis, the true heat discharge will be in the range from −60% to +20% of the calculated discharge of this method. Two hot spots in the northeast to southwest direction correspond to the high temperature fumaroles seen in the temperature distributions derived from band 7. A new hot spot corresponds to a new degassing vent has been observed on the southern end of the summit crater since January 1992, and expanded to the same size as the other two hot spots since December 1993.


  1. Berk, A., L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: A Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN 7, 38 pp., Geophysics Laboratory, GL-TR-89-0122, Hanscom, 1989.

  2. Francis, P. W. and D. A. Rothery, Using the Landsat Thematic Mapper to detect and monitor active volcanoes: An example from Lascar volcano, northern Chile, Geology, 15, 614–617, 1987.

  3. Geographical Survey Institute, Digital Map 50 m Grid (Elevation) NIPPON III, CD-ROM, Geographical Survey Institute, Tsukuba, 1997.

  4. Harris, A. J. L., L. P. Flynn, D. A. Rothery, C. Oppenheimer, and S. B. Sherman, Mass flux measurements at active lava lakes: Implication for magma recycling, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 7117–7136, 1999.

  5. Hedenquist, J. W., M. Aoki, and H. Shinohara, Flux of volatiles and oreforming metals from the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Satsuma Iwojima volcano, Geology, 22, 585–588, 1994.

  6. Japan Meteorological Agency, Aerological Data of Japan 1988–1990, CD-ROM, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, 1996a.

  7. Japan Meteorological Agency, Aerological Data of Japan 1991–1994, CD-ROM, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, 1996b.

  8. Japan Meteorological Agency, Aerological Data of Japan 1995, CD-ROM, Japan Meteorological Business Support Center, Tokyo, 1996c.

  9. Japan Meteorological Agency, Aerological Data of Japan 1996, CD-ROM, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, 1996d.

  10. Japan Meteorological Agency, Aerological Data of Japan 1998, CD-ROM, Japan Meteorological Business Support Center, Tokyo, 1999.

  11. Kagiyama, T., Evaluation methods of heat discharge and their applications to the major active volcanoes in Japan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 9, 87–97, 1981.

  12. Kagiyama, T., K. Uhira, T. Watanabe, F. Masutani, and M. Yamaguchi, Geothermal survey of the volcanoes Kirishima, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., 54, 187–210, 1979 (in Japanese).

  13. Kaneko, T. and M. J. Wooster, Landsat infrared analysis of fumarole activity at Unzen Volcano: time-series comparison with gas and magma fluxes, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 89, 57–64, 1999.

  14. Markham, B. L. and J. L. Barker, Landsat MSS and TM post-calibration dynamic ranges, exoatmospheric reflectances and at-satellite temperatures, Landsat Technical Notes, 1, 3–8, 1986.

  15. Matsushima, N., Geothermal activities in the summit crater of Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Proc. Volcanic Structure in the Shallow Part and Volcanic Fluid, Disas. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., 125–138, 2001 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  16. Mouginis-Mark, P. J. and P. W. Francis, Satellite observations of active volcanoes: Prospects for the 1990s, Episodes, 15, 46–55, 1992.

  17. Ono, K., T. Soya, and T. Hosono, Geology of the Satsuma-Io-Jima District. Quadrangle Series: Scale 1:50,000, 80 pp., Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, 1982 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  18. Rothery, D. A., P. W. Francis, and C. A. Wood, Volcano monitoring using short wavelength infrared data from satellites, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 7993–8008, 1988.

  19. Sekioka, M. and K. Yuhara, Heat flax estimation in geothermal areas based on the heat balance of the ground surface, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 2053–2058, 1974.

  20. Sekioka, M., Y. Itoh, T. Saitoh, M. Ohba, and K. Takahashi, Measurements of heat discharge at Owakudani geothermal area, Hakone volcano, Japan, J. Jap. Geotherm. Energy Assoc., 15, 11–18, 1978 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  21. Shinohara, H., W. F. Giggenbach, K. Kazahaya, and J. W. Hedenquist, Geochemistry of volcanic gases and hot springs of Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan: Following Matsuo, Geochem. J., 27, 271–285, 1993.

  22. Shinohara, H., K. Kazahaya, G. Saito, N. Matsushima, and Y. Kawanabe, Degassing activity from Iwodake rhyolitic cone, Satstuma-Iwojima volcano, Japan: Formation of a new degassing vent, 1990–1999, Earth Planets Space, 54, this issue, 175–185, 2002.

  23. Urai, M., Volcano monitoring with Landsat TM short-wave infrared bands: the 1990–1994 eruption of Unzen Volcano, Japan, Int. Jour. Rem. Sens., 21, 861–872, 2000.

  24. USGS and NOAA, Landsat 4 Data Users Handbook, 86 pp., USGS, Alexandria, 1984.

  25. Vincent, R. K., L. C. Rowan, R. E. Gillespie, and C. Knapp, Thermal-infrared spectra and chemical analyses of twenty-six igneous rock samples, Rem. Sens. Envi., 4, 199–209, 1975.

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Minoru Urai.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Urai, M. Heat discharge estimation using satellite remote sensing data on the Iwodake volcano in Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan. Earth Planet Sp 54, 211–216 (2002).

Download citation


  • Landsat
  • Heat Discharge Rate
  • Japan Meteorological Agency
  • Digital Terrain Model
  • Landsat Thematic Mapper