- Open Access
Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satsuma-Iwojima volcano
Earth, Planets and Space volume 54, pages275–286(2002)
The Satsuma-Iwojima volcano has been emitting continuously high temperature (600° to 900°C) gases for at least 800 years. We identified the minerals that form in response to closed-system cooling of these gases and from air-mixing reactions. Major differences compared with the sublimates observed at other volcanoes are the occurrence of wulfenite (PbMoO4) and several mixed chlorides. This is the first report of wulfenite in fumarolic deposits. Thermochemical modeling shows that wulfenite precipitates between 540° and 490°C from a gas with lower sulfur content and/or higher fO2, and a higher Mo content (log fSO2 = −2.1, log fH2S = −5, log ffO2 = −18.6, log fH2MoO4 = −4.5, T = 500°C) than the previously reported gas composition. The occurrence of abundant K, Pb, Fe, Zn, Rb and Cs mixed chlorides may be promoted by the low S/Cl of the Satsuma-Iwojima high temperature gases. Natural sublimates of metallic elements (molybdenite, wulfenite, anglesite, Tl-Pb and Tl-Bi sulfides, Mo oxydes and Pb oxides) are deposited along the fumarolic conduit and on the ground under conditions of variable temperatures and fO2. The increase in fO2 due to the mixing of the gases with the atmosphere reduces the volatility of several elements (As, Sn, Na, K and Pb) by promoting their condensation at higher temperatures. As air mixes with volcanic gas in the fumarolic plume, we can expect to find these metals as aerosols.
Barin, I., F. Sauert, and F. Hampson, Thermochemical data of pure substances, 921 pp., VCH, Weinheim, 1993.
Bernard, A., Les mécanismes de condensation des gaz volcaniques (chimie, minéralogie et équilibres des phases condensées majeures et mineures), Thèse de doctorat, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1985.
Bernard, A. and F. Le Guern, Condensation of volatile elements in high temperature gases of Mt. St. Helens, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 28, 91–105, 1986.
Bernard, A., R. Symonds, and W. Rose, Jr., Volatile transport and deposition of Mo, W and Re in high temperature magmatic fluids, Appl. Geochem., 5, 317–326, 1990.
Cadle, R. D., A. L. Lazrus, B. J. Huebert, L. E. Heidt, W. I. Rose, Jr., D. C. Woods, R. L. Chuan, R. E. Stoiber, D. B. Smith, and R. A. Zielinski, Atmospheric implications of studies of Central American volcanic eruption clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 6961–6968, 1979.
Coradossi, N. and F. Mazzi, Variazione della constante reticolare ao con il contenuto di bromo nel chloruro di ammonio naturale (salmiak) di Vulcano (Isole Eolie), Rend. Soc. Ital. Min. petr., 40, 267–275, 1985.
Crowe, B., D. Finnegan, W. Zoller, and W. Boynton, Trace element geochemistry of volcanic gases and particles from 1983–1984 eruptive episodes of Kilauea Volcano, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 13708–13714, 1987.
Fischer, T., W. Giggenbach, Y. Sano, and S. Williams, Fluxes and sources of volatiles discharged from Kudryavy, a subduction zone volcano, Kurile Islands, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 160, 81–96, 1998.
Galindo, I., L. Ivlev, A. Gonzalez, and R. Ayala, Airborne measurements of particle and gas emissions from the December 1994–January 1995 eruption of Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico), J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 83, 197–217, 1998.
Gauthier, P. J., Nucléides de courtes périodes dans les gaz et les magmas: Contribution à l’Etude du dégazage et de la dynamique des reservoirs magmatiques, Thèse de doctorat, Université Blaise Pascale, Clermont-Ferrand, 1998.
Hedenquist, J. W., The ascent of magmatic fluid: discharge versus mineralization, in Magmas, Fluids and Ore Deposits: Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course, edited by J. F. H. Thompson, 23, 263–289, 1995.
Hedenquist, J. W., M. Aoki, and H. Shinohara, Flux of volatiles and ore-forming metals from the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Satsuma Iwojima volcano, Geology, 22, 585–588, 1994.
Hinkley, T. K., M.-F. Le Cloarec, and G. Lambert, Fractionation of families of major, minor, and trace metals across the melt-vapor interface in volcanic exhalations, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58, 3255–3263, 1994.
Hobbs, P., J. Tuell, D. Hegg, L. Radke, and M. Eltgroth, Particles and gases in the emissions from the 1980–1981 volcanic eruptions of Mt. St. Helens, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 11062–11086, 1982.
Jedwab, J., A method of extraction and analysis of possible cosmic particles from manganese nodules, Meteorics, 10, 233–240, 1975.
Le Guern, F. and A. Bernard, A new method for sampling and analyzing volcanic sublimates. Application to Merapi Volcano, Java, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 12, 133–146, 1982.
Mackinnon, I., J. Gooding, D. McKay, and U. Clanton, The El Chichón stratospheric cloud: solid particulates and settling rates, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 23, 125–145, 1984.
Naughton, J., V. Lewis, D. Hammond, and D. Nishimoto, The chemistry of sublimates collected directly from lava fountains at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 38, 1679–1690, 1974.
Nriagu, J. O., A global assessment of natural sources of atmospheric trace metals, Nature, 338, 47–49, 1989.
Oskarsson, N., The chemistry of Icelandic lava incrustations and the latest stages of degassing, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 10, 93–111, 1981.
Quisefit, J. P., J. P. Toutain, G. Bergametti, M. Javoy, B. Cheynet, and A. Person, Evolution versus cooling of gaseous volcanic emissions from Momotombo Volcano, Nicaragua: Thermochemical model and observations, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 2591–2608, 1989.
Rose, W. I., R. L. Chuan, and D. C. Woods, Small particles in plumes of Mount St. Helens, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 4956–4962, 1982.
Shinohara, H., W. F. Giggenbach, K. Kazahaya, and J. W. Hedenquist, Geochemistry of volcanic gases and hot springs of Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan: Following Matsuo, Geochem. J., 27, 271–285, 1993.
Shinohara, H., K. Kazahaya, G. Saito, N. Matsushima, and Y. Kawanabe, Degassing activity from Iwodake rhyolitic cone, Satsuma-Iwojima volcano, Japan: Formation of a new degassing vent, 1990–1999, Earth Planets Space, 54, this issue, 175–185, 2002.
Stoiber, R. E. and W. I. Rose, Jr., Fumarole incrustations at active Central American volcanoes, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 38, 495–516, 1974.
Symonds, R. B., Scanning electron microscope observations of sublimates from Merapi volcano, Indonesia, Geochem. J., 26, 341–354, 1993.
Symonds, R. B. and M. H. Reed, Calculation of multicomponent chemical equilibria in gas-solid-liquid systems: calculation methods, thermochemical data, and applications to studies of high-temperature volcanic gases with examples from Mount St. Helens, Amer. J. Sci., 293, 758–864, 1993.
Symonds, R. B., W. I. Rose, M. H. Reed, F. E. Lichte, and D. L. Finnegan, Volatilization, transport and sublimation of metallic and non-metallic elements in high temperature gases at Merapi Volcano, Indonesia, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 51, 2083–2101, 1987.
Symonds, R. B., M. H. Reed, and W. I. Rose, Origin, specification, and fluxes of trace-element gases at Augustine volcano, Alaska: insights into magma degassing and fumarolic processes, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 633–657, 1992.
Taran, Y. A., A. Bernard, J. C. Gavilanes, and F. Africano, Native gold in mineral precipitates from high-temperature volcanic gases of Colima volcano, Mexico, Appl. Geochem., 15, 337–346, 2000.
Toutain, J. P., J. P. Quisefit, P. Briole, P. Aloupogiannis, P. Blanc, and G. Robaye, Mineralogy and chemistry of solid aerosols emitted from Mount Etna, Geochem. J., 29, 163–173, 1995.
Varekamp, J. C., E. Thomas, M. Germani, and P. R. Buseck, Particle geochemistry of volcanic plumes of Etna and Mount St. Helens, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 12233–12248, 1986.
Wahrenberger, C. M., Some aspects of the chemistry of volcanic gases, Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Natural Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 1997.
About this article
Cite this article
Africano, F., Van Rompaey, G., Bernard, A. et al. Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satsuma-Iwojima volcano. Earth Planet Sp 54, 275–286 (2002) doi:10.1186/BF03353027