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A hydrogeological investigation using EM34 and SP surveys


EM34 and SP surveys were used to delineate shallow structures associated with the mineral water springs in the Vilarelho da Raia area located NE Portugal. This spring is part of a set of CO2-rich mineral (hot and cold) waters connected to the main Hercynian NNE-SSW fault systems. The EM34 survey was interpreted using a quasi-three-dimensional inversion approach based on a smooth-regularisation algorithm. The model put into evidence the conductive overburden as well as the fractured granitic formation. A preliminary estimation of the aquifer porosity is made based on the EM34 model. The SP anomalies were interpreted considering as having their sources on the aquifer interfaces. The modelling of two SP profiles allow the characterisation of a fault connected to the spring.


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Correspondence to Fernando A. Monteiro Santos.

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Santos, F.A.M., Almeida, E.P., Castro, R. et al. A hydrogeological investigation using EM34 and SP surveys. Earth Planet Sp 54, 655–662 (2002).

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  • Hydrogeological Investigation
  • Electrokinetic Phenomenon
  • Aquifer Interface
  • Thermomineral Water
  • Shallow Circulation