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Open Access

A hydrogeological investigation using EM34 and SP surveys

  • Fernando A. Monteiro Santos1Email author,
  • Eugénio P. Almeida1, 2,
  • R. Castro1,
  • R. Nolasco1 and
  • Luís Mendes-Victor1
Earth, Planets and Space201454:BF03353053

Published: 25 June 2014


EM34 and SP surveys were used to delineate shallow structures associated with the mineral water springs in the Vilarelho da Raia area located NE Portugal. This spring is part of a set of CO2-rich mineral (hot and cold) waters connected to the main Hercynian NNE-SSW fault systems. The EM34 survey was interpreted using a quasi-three-dimensional inversion approach based on a smooth-regularisation algorithm. The model put into evidence the conductive overburden as well as the fractured granitic formation. A preliminary estimation of the aquifer porosity is made based on the EM34 model. The SP anomalies were interpreted considering as having their sources on the aquifer interfaces. The modelling of two SP profiles allow the characterisation of a fault connected to the spring.


Hydrogeological InvestigationElectrokinetic PhenomenonAquifer InterfaceThermomineral WaterShallow Circulation