Skip to main content


A decade of GEONET: 1994–2003 —The continuous GPS observation in Japan and its impact on earthquake studies—

Article metrics

  • 664 Accesses

  • 114 Citations


The dense continuous GPS network of Japan, now called GEONET, has been operated since 1994 by the Geographical Survey Institute. GEONET provides precise daily coordinates of all the stations, with which displacement rates and strain rates are calculated nationwide. Various characteristics of tectonic deformation in the Japanese Is-lands have been revealed. GEONET is also quite useful in earthquake studies, precisely detecting co-seismic, post-seismic, and inter-seismic deformation signals. These observations are utilized to infer physical processes at earthquake sources. Slow slip events on plate boundaries have been found from GPS data. Such slow events provide an important constraint on the mechanism of faulting. On the other hand, there has been no success in detecting pre-seismic deformation. Lack of a precursory signal before the 2003 Tokachi-Oki (M8.0) earthquake has posed a serious question to short-term earthquake prediction. GEONET enables a good linkage between monitoring and modeling studies, opening a possibility of practical data assimilation. For further contribution to earthquake studies, it is necessary to continue GEONET with high traceability on the details in observation and analysis.


  1. Aoki, Y. and C. H. Scholz, Vertical deformation of the Japanese islands, 1996–1999, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2257, doi:10.1029/2002JB002129, 2003.

  2. Aoki, Y., P. Segall, T. Kato, P. Cervelli, and S. Shimada, Imaging magma transport during the 1997 seismic swarm off the Izu Peninsula, Japan, Science, 286, 927–930, 1999.

  3. Bevis, M., F. W. Taylor, B. E. Schutz, J. Recy, B. L. Isacks, S. Helu, R. Singh, E. Kendrick, J. Stowell, B. Taylor, and S. Calmant, Geodetic observations of very rapid convergence and back-arc extension at the Tonga arc, Nature, 374, 249–251, 1995.

  4. Bock, Y., L. Prawirodirdjo, and T. I. Melbourne, Detection of arbitrarily large dynamic ground motions with a dense high-rate GPS network, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L06604, doi:10.1029/2003GL019150, 2004.

  5. Dragert, H., K. Wang, and T. S. James, A silent slip event on the deeper Cascadia subduction interface, Science, 292, 1525–1528, 2001.

  6. El-Fiky, G. S., Elastic and inelastic strains in the Japanese islands deduced from GPS dense array, Earth Planets Space, 52, 1107–1112, 2000.

  7. Fujie, G., J. Kasahara, R. Hino, T. Sato, M. Shinohara, and K. Suyehiro, A significant relation between seismic activities and reflection intensities in the Japan Trench region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/2001GL013764, 2002.

  8. Fujihara, S., M. Hashimoto, and S. Takemoto, Numerical analysis of backarc spreading mechanism in the Okinawa Trough, J. Geod. Soc. Japan, 47, 659–678, 2001.

  9. Fujiwara, S., H. Yarai, S. Ozawa, M. Tobita, M. Murakami, H. Nakagawa, K. Nitta, P. A. Rosen, and C. L. Werner, Surface displacement of the March 26, 1997 Kagoshima-ken-hokuseibu earthquake in Japan from synthetic aperture radar interferometry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4541–4544, 1998.

  10. Hashimoto, M., Horizontal strain rates in the Japanese Islands during inter-seismic period deduced from geodetic surveys (Part 1): Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, Zisin, 43, 13–26, 1990 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  11. Hashimoto, M. and D. D. Jackson, Plate tectonics and crustal deformation around the Japanese islands, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 16149–16166, 1993.

  12. Hashimoto, M., T. Sagiya, H. Tsuji, Y. Hatanaka, and T. Tada, Coseismic displacements of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, J. Phys. Earth, 44, 255–279, 1996.

  13. Hashimoto, M., S. Miyazaki, and D. D. Jackson, A block-fault model for deformation of the Japanese islands derived from continuous GPS observation, Earth Planets Space, 52, 1095–1100, 2000.

  14. Hatanaka, Y., GPS observation of crustal movements and its seasonal variation, Earth Monthly, 25, 103–108, 2003 (in Japanese).

  15. Hatanaka, Y., M. Sawada, A. Horita, and M. Kusaka, Calibration of anntena-radome and monument-multipath effect of GEONET—Part 1: Measurement of phase characteristics, Earth Planets Space, 53, 13–21, 2002a.

  16. Hatanaka, Y., M. Sawada, A. Horita, M. Kusaka, J. M. Johnson, and C. Rocken, Calibration of anntena-radome and monument-multipath effect of GEONET—Part 2: Evaluation of the phase map by GEONET data, Earth Planets Space, 53, 23–30, 2002b.

  17. Hatanaka, Y., T. Iizuka, M. Sawada, A. Yamagiwa, Y. Kikuta, J. M. Johnson, and C. Rocken, Improvement of the analysis strategy of GEONET, Bull. Geogr. Surv. Inst., 49, 11–37, 2003.

  18. Heki, K., Vertical and horizontal crustal movements from three dimensional VLBI kinematic reference frame: implication for the geomagnetic reversal timescale revision, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 3187–3198, 1996.

  19. Heki, K., Seasonal modulation of interseismic strain buildup in Northeastern Japan driven by snow loads, Science, 293, 89–92, 2001.

  20. Heki, K., Snow load and seasonal variation of earthquake occurrence in Japan, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 207, 159–164, 2003a.

  21. Heki, K., Seasonal crustal deformation in Japan: final synthesis, IUGG2003, JSG01/A01–014, 2003b.

  22. Heki, K. and S. Miyazaki, Plate convergence and long-term crustal deformation in Central Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2313–2316, 2001.

  23. Heki, K. and Y. Tamura, Short term afterslip in the 1994 Sanriku-HarukaOki earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 3285–3288, 1997.

  24. Heki, K., S. Miyazaki, and H. Tsuji, Silent fault slip following an interplate thrust earthquake at the Japan Trench, Nature, 386, 595–597, 1997.

  25. Heki, K., S. Miyazaki, H. Takahashi, M. Kasahara, F. Kimata, S. Miura, N. Vasilenco, A. Ivashchenco, and K. An, The Amurian plate motion and current plate kinematics in Eastern Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 29147–29155, 1999.

  26. Henry, P., S. Mazzotti, and X. Le Pichon, Transient and permanent deformation of central Japan estimated by GPS: 1. interseismic loading and subduction kinematics, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 184, 443–453, 2001.

  27. Hirahara, K., Y. Ooi, M. Ando, Y. Hoso, Y. Wada, and T. Ohkura, Dense GPS Array observations across the Atotsugawa fault, central Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 8012, doi:10.1029/2002GL015035, 2003.

  28. Hirose, H., K. Hirahara, F. Kimata, N. Fujii, and S. Miyazaki, A slow thrust slip event following the two 1996 Hyuganada earthquakes beneath the Bungo Channel, southwest Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3237–3240, 1999.

  29. Hirose, H. and K. Obara, Repeating slow slip events which correlate deep low frequency tremor activity in southwest Japan, Abstr. Seism. Soc. Japan Fall Meeting, C098, 2003.

  30. Hori, M., T. Kameda, and T. Kato, Prediction of stress field in Japan using GPS network data, Earth Planets Space, 52, 1101–1105, 2000.

  31. Hugentobler, U., S. Schaer, and P. Fridez (eds.), Bernese GPS Software Version 4.2, 515 pp., University of Berne, 2001.

  32. Hyodo, M. and K. Hirahara, A viscoelastic model of interseismic strain concentration in Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone of central Japan, Earth Planets Space, 55, 667–675, 2003.

  33. Iio, Y., T. Sagiya, Y. Kobayashi, and I. Shiozaki, Water-weakened lower crust and its role in the concentrated deformation in the Japanese Islands, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 203, 245–253, 2002.

  34. Irwan, M., F. Kimata, K. Hirahara, T. Sagiya, and A. Yamagiwa, Measuring ground deformation with 1-Hz GPS data: the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (preliminary report), Earth Planets Space, 56, 389–393, 2004.

  35. Ishibashi, K., Specification of a soon-to-occur seismic faulting in the Tokai district, central Japan, based upon seismotectonics, in Earthquake Prediction: An International Review, edited by D. W. Simpson and P. G. Richards, Am. Geophys. Un., pp. 297–332, 1981.

  36. Itani, Y. and K. Ishibashi, Horizontal crustal strain in the Izu Peninsula-Mt. Fuji region derived from GEONET data and its tectonic implication, Zisin, 56, 231–243, 2003 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  37. Ito, T. and M. Hashimoto, Spatio-temporal distribution of interplate coupling in southwest Japan deduced from inversion analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B02315, doi:10.1029/2002JB002358, 2004a.

  38. Ito, T. and M. Hashimoto, Detection of migrating crustal deformation from GEONET data, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 2004b (submitted).

  39. Ito, T. and S. Yoshioka, A model of dyke intrusion near Miyake, Nii and Kozu Islands in 2000, Tectonophys., 359, 171–187, 2002.

  40. Ito, T., S. Yoshioka, and S. Miyazaki, Interplate coupling in southwest Japan deduced from inversion analysis of GPS data, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 115, 17–34, 1999.

  41. Ito, T., S. Yoshioka, and S. Miyazaki, Interplate coupling in northeast Japan deduced from inversion analysis of GPS data, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 176, 117–130, 2000.

  42. Kato, T., G. S. El-Fiky, E. N. Oware, and S. Miyazaki, Crustal strains in the Japanese islands as deduced from dense GPS array, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3445–3448, 1998.

  43. Kato, T., J. Beavan, T. Matsushima, Y. Kotake, J. T. Camacho, and S. Nakao, Geodetic evidence of back-arc spreading in the Mariana Trough, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1625, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016757, 2003.

  44. Kawasaki, I., Y. Asai, and Y. Tamura, Space-time distribution of interplate moment release including slow earthquakes and the seismo-geodetic coupling in the Sanriku-oki region along the Japan trench, Tectonphys., 330, 267–283, 2001.

  45. Kobayashi, Y., Initiation of plate subduction, Earth Monthly, 5, 510–518, 1983 (in Japanese).

  46. Koketsu, K., K. Hikima, S. Miyazaki, and S. Ide, Joint inversion of strong motion and geodetic data for the source process of the 2003 Tokachi-oki, Hokkaido, earthquake, Earth Planets Space, 56, 329–334, 2004.

  47. Larson, K., P. Bodin, and J. Gomberg, Using 1-Hz GPS data to measure deformations caused by the Denali Fault Earthquake, Science, 300, 1421–1424, 2003.

  48. Lay, T. and H. Kanamori, An asperity model of large earthquake sequence, in Earthquake Prediction: An International Review, edited by D. W. Simpson and P. G. Richards, Am. Geophys. Un., pp. 579–592, 1981.

  49. Le Pichon, X., S. Mazzotti, P. Henry, and M. Hashimoto, Deformation of Japanese islands and seismic coupling: An interaction based on GSI permanent GPS observations, Geophys. J. Int., 134, 501–514, 1998.

  50. Linde, A. T. and I. S. Sacks, Slow earthquakes and great earthquakes along the Nankai trough, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 203, 265–275, 2002.

  51. Matsumura, S., Focal zone of a future Tokai earthquake inferred from the seismicity pattern around the plate interface, Tectonophys., 273, 271–291, 1997.

  52. Mazzotti, S., P. Henry, X. Le Pichon, and T. Sagiya, Strain partitioning in the zone of transition from Nankai subduction to Izu-Bonin collision (Central Japan): implications for an extensional tear within the subducting slab, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 172, 1–10, 1999.

  53. Mazzotti, S., X. Le Pichon, P. Henry, and S. Miyazaki, Full interseismic locking of the Nankai and Japan-west Kurile subduction zones: an analysis of uniform elastic strain accumulation in Japan constrained by permanent GPS, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 13159–13177, 2000.

  54. Mazzotti, S., P. Henry, and X. Le Pichon, Transient and permanent deformation of central Japan estimated by GPS: 2. strain partitioning and arc-arc collision, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 184, 455–469, 2001.

  55. Miller, M. M., T. Melbourne, D. J. Johnson, and W. Q. Sumner, Periodic slow earthquakes from the Cascadia subduction zone, Science, 295, 2423, 2002.

  56. Miura, S., S. Ueki, T. Sato, K. Tachibana, and H. Hamaguchi, Crustal deformation associated with the 1998 seismo-volcanic crisis of Iwate Volcano, northeastern Japan, as observed by a dense GPS network, Earth Planets Space, 52, 1003–1008, 2000.

  57. Miura, S., T. Sato, K. Tachibana, Y. Satake, and A. Hasegawa, Strain accumulation in and around Ou Backbone Range, northeastern Japan as observed by a dense GPS network, Earth Planets Space, 54, 1071–1076, 2002.

  58. Miura, S., Y. Suwa, T. Sato, K. Tachibana, and A. Hasegawa, Slip distribution of the 2003 northern Miyagi earthquake (M6.4) deduced from geodetic inversion, Earth Planets Space, 56, 95–101, 2004a.

  59. Miura, S., Y. Suwa, A. Hasegawa, and T. Nishimura, The 2003 M8.0 Tokachi-oki earthquake—How much has the great event paid back slip debts?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L05613, 10.1029/2003GL019021, 2004b.

  60. Miyazaki, S. and K. Heki, Crustal velocity field of Southwest Japan: subdution and arc-arc collision, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 4305–4326, 2001.

  61. Miyazaki, S., H. Tsuji, Y. Hatanaka, Y. Abe, A. Yoshimura, K. Kamada, K. Kobayashi, H. Morishita, and Y. Iimura, Establishment of the nationwide GPS array (GRAPES) and its initial results on the crustal deformation of Japan, Bull. Geogr. Surv. Inst., 42, 27–41, 1996.

  62. Miyazaki, S., T. Saito, M. Sasaki, Y. Hatanaka, and Y. Iimura, Expansion of GSI’s nationwide GPS array, Bull. Geogr. Surv. Inst., 43, 23–34, 1997.

  63. Miyazaki, S., Y. Hatanaka, T. Sagiya, and T. Tada, The nationwide GPS array as an earth observation system, Bull. Geogr. Surv. Inst., 44, 11–22, 1998.

  64. Mogi, K., Temporal variation of crustal deformation during the days preceding a thrust-type great earthquake—The 1944 Tonankai earthquake of magnitude 8.1, Japan, PAGEOPH, 122, 765–780, 1984.

  65. Murakami, M. and S. Miyazaki, Periodicity of strain accumulation detected by permanent GPS array: Possible relationship to seasonality of major earthquakes occurrence, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2983–2986, 2001.

  66. Nakamura, K., Possible nascent trench along the eastern Japan Sea as the convergentboundary between Eurasian and North American Plates, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 58, 711–722, 1983 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  67. Nishimura, S., M. Ando, and S. Miyazaki, Inter-plate coupling along the Nankai Trough and southeastward motion along southern part of Kyushu, Zisin, 51, 443–456, 1999 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  68. Nishimura, T., Spatio-temoiral variation in the interplate coupling along the northeastern Japan deduced from GPS data, Ph.D. Thesis, Tohoku Univerisity, 123 pp., 2000.

  69. Nishimura, T., S. Miura, K. Tachibana, K. Hashimoto, T. Sato, S. Hori, E. Murakami, T. Kono, K. Nida, M. Mishina, T. Hirasawa, and S. Miyazaki, Distribution of seismic coupling on the subducting plate boundary in northeastern Japan inferred from GPS observations, Tectonophys., 323, 217–238, 2000.

  70. Nishimura, T., S. Fujiwara, M. Murakami, M. Tobita, H. Nakagawa, T. Sagiya, and T. Tada, The M6.1 earthquake triggered by volcanic inflation of Iwate volcano, northern Japan, observed by satellite radar interferom-etry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 635–638, 2001a.

  71. Nishimura, T., S. Ozawa, M. Murakami, T. Sagiya, T. Tada, M. Kaidzu, and M. Ukawa, Crustal deformation caused by magma migration in the northern Izu Islands, Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3745–3748, 2001b.

  72. Nishimura, T., Earthquake triggering due to volcanic deformation sources in areas east of Ito and around Mt. Iwate volcano, J. Geogr., 111, 166–174, 2002 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  73. Nishimura, T., T. Imakiire, H. Yarai, T. Ozawa, M. Murakami, and M. Kaidzu, A preliminary fault mode of the 2003 July 26, M6.4 northern Miyagi earthquake, northeastern Japan, estimated from joint inversion of GPS, leveling, and InSAR data, Earth Planets Space, 55, 751–757, 2003.

  74. Obana, K., H. Katao, and M. Ando, Seafloor positioning system with GPS-acoustic link for crustal dynamics observation—preliminary result from experiments in the sea, Earth Planets Space, 52, 415–423, 2000.

  75. Obara, K., Nonvolcanic deep tremor associated with subduction in southwest Japan, Science, 296, 1679–1681, 2002.

  76. Ozawa, S., Geodetic inversion for the fault model of the 1994 Shikotan earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2009–2012, 1996.

  77. Ozawa, S., M. Murakami, T. Tada, Time-dependent inversion study of the slow thrust event in the Nankai trough subduction zone, southwestern Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 787–802, 2001.

  78. Ozawa, S., M. Murakami, M. Kaidzu, T. Tada, T. Sagiya, H. Yarai, and T. Nishimura, Detection and monitoring of ongoing aseismic slip in the Tokai region, central Japan, Science, 298, 1009–1012, 2002.

  79. Ozawa, S., S. Miyazaki, Y. Hatanaka, T. Imakiire, M. Kaidzu, and M. Murakami, Characteristic silent earthquakes in the eastern part of the Boso peninsula, Central Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1283, doi:10.1029/2002GL016665, 2003.

  80. Ozawa, T., T. Tabei, and S. Miyazaki, Interplate coupling along the Nankai Trough off southwest Japan derived from GPS measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 927–930, 1999.

  81. Rogers, G. and H. Dragert, Episodic tremor and slip on the cascadia subduction zone: The chatter of silent slip, Science, 300, 1942–1943, 2003.

  82. Sagiya, T., Continuous GPS observation in the southern Kanto and the Tokai districts (1994–1996), J. Geogr. Surv. Inst., 88, 10–18, 1998a (in Japanese).

  83. Sagiya, T., Interplate coupling and plate tectonics at the northern end of the Philippine Sea plate detected from continuous GPS data, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, 73, 275–290, 1998b (in Japanese with English abstract).

  84. Sagiya, T., Interplate coupling in the Tokai District, Central Japan, deduced from continuous GPS data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2315–2318, 1999.

  85. Sagiya, T., The continuous GPS network of Japan and its impact on earthquake prediction, IUGG2003, JSS01/A03–003, 2003.

  86. Sagiya, T., Interplate coupling in the Kanto District, central Japan, and the Boso Silent earthquake in May 1996, PAGEOPH, 2004 (in press).

  87. Sagiya, T., A. Yoshimura, E. Iwata, K. Abe, I. Kimura, K. Uemura, and T. Tada, Establishment of permanent GPS observation network and crustal deformation monitoring in the southern Kanto and Tokai areas, Bull. Geogr. Surv. Inst., 41, 105–118, 1995.

  88. Sagiya, T., S. Miyazaki, and T. Tada, Continuous GPS array and present-day crustal deformation of Japan, PAGEOPH, 157, 2303–2322, 2000.

  89. Sagiya, T., T. Nishimura, Y. Hatanaka, E. Fukuyama, and W. L. Ellsworth, Crustal movements associated with the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake and its fault models, Zisin, 54, 523–534, 2002a (in Japanese with English abstract).

  90. Sagiya, T., T. Nishimura, Y. Iio, and T. Tada, Crustal deformation around the northern and central Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line, Earth Planets Space, 54, 1059–1063, 2002b.

  91. Savage, J. C. and W. H. Prescott, Asthenosphere readjustment and the earthquake cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 3369–3376, 1978.

  92. Savage, J. C., A dislocation model of strain accumulation and release at a subduction zone, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 4984–4996, 1983.

  93. Seno, T., S., Stein, and A. E. Gripp, A model for the motion of the Philippine Sea plate consistent with Nuvel-1 and geological data, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 17941–17948, 1993.

  94. Seno, T., T. Sakurai, and S. Stein, Can the Okhotsk plate be discriminated from the North American plate?, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 11305–11315, 1996.

  95. Shen, Z.-K., D. D. Jackson, and B. X. Ge, Crustal deformation across and beyond the Los Angels basin from geodetic measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 27957–27980, 1996.

  96. Shen-Tu, B., W. E. Holt, and A. J. Haines, Intraplate deformation in the Japanese islands: a kinematic study of intraplate deformation at a convergent plate margin, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 24275–24293, 1995.

  97. Shimada, S. and Y. Bock, Crustal deformation measurements in central Japan determined by a Global Positioning System fixed-point network, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 12437–12455, 1992.

  98. Shimada, S., Y. Fujinawa, S. Sekiguchi, S. Ohmi, T. Eguchi, and Y. Okada, Detection of a volcanic fracture opening in Japan using Global Positioning System measurements, Nature, 343, 631–633, 1990.

  99. Shimazaki, K. and Y. Zhao, Dislocation model for strain accumulation in a plate collision zone, Earth Planets Space, 52, 1091–1094, 2000.

  100. Shishikura, M., T. Haraguchi, and T. Miyauchi, Timing and recurrence interval of the Taisho-type Kanto earthquake, analyzing Holocene emerged shoreline topography in the Iwai loaland, the southwestern part of the Boso Peninsula, Zisin, 53, 357–372, 2001 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  101. Tabei, T. and W. L. Amin, Common-mode errors in the GPS coordinates time series—Application of spatial filtering technique—, J. Geod. Soc. Japan, 48, 229–241, 2002.

  102. Tabei, T., M. Hashimoto, S. Miyazaki, K. Hirahara, F. Kimata, T. Matsushima, T. Tanaka, Y. Eguchi, T. Takaya, Y. Hoso, F. Ohya, and T. Kato, Subsurface structure and faulting of the Median Tectonic Line, southwest Japan inferred from GPS velocity field, Earth Planets Space, 54, 1065–1070, 2002.

  103. Tabei, T., M. Hashimoto, S. Miyazaki, and Y. Ohta, Present-day deformation across the southwest Japan arc: Oblique subduction of the Philippine Sea plate and lateral slip of the Nankai forearc, Earth Planets Space, 55, 643–647, 2003.

  104. Tada, T., T. Sagiya, and S. Miyazaki, The deforming Japanese islands as viewed with GPS, Kagaku, 67, 917–927, 1997 (in Japanese).

  105. Takahashi, H., N. Okazawaki, S. Ishimaru, H. Mori, T. Matsushima, A. Watanabe, S. Miura, S. Nakao, T. Kato, F. Kimata, and M. Kasahara, Geodetic observations of the 2000 eruption of Usu Volcano using dual frequency GPS receivers, Kazan, 47, 161–166, 2002 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  106. Tanioka, Y., K. Satake, and L. Ruff, Total analysis of the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake using seismic wave, tsunami, and geodetic data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 9–12, 1995.

  107. Thatcher, W., The earthquake deformation cycle at the Nankai trough, southwest Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 3087–3101, 1984.

  108. Toda, S., R. Stein, and T. Sagiya, Evidence from the AD 2000 Izu islands earthquake swarm that stressing rate governs seismicity, Nature, 419, 58–61, 2002.

  109. Tsuji, H., Y. Hatanaka, T. Sagiya, and M. Hashimoto, Coseismic crustal deformation from the 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki earthquake monitored by a nationwide continuous GPS array in Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1669–1672, 1995.

  110. Uchida, N., T. Matsuzawa, T. Igarashi, and A. Hasegawa, Interplate quasistatic slip off Sanriku, NE Japan, estimated from repeating earthquakes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 10.1029/2003GL017452, 2003.

  111. Ueda, H., M. Ohtake, and H. Sato, Postseismic crustal deformation following the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake, northern Japan: Evidence for a low-viscosity zone in the uppermost mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2151, doi:10.1029/2002JB002067, 2003.

  112. Wei, D. and T. Seno, Determination of the Amurian plate motion, in Mantle Dynamics and Plate Interactions in East Asia, edited by M. Flower, S.-L. Chung, C.-H. Lo, and T.-Y Lee, Am. Geophys. Un., pp. 337–346, 1998.

  113. Wesnousky, S. G., C. H. Scholz, and K. Shimazaki, Deformation of an island arc: rates of moment release and crustal shortening in intraplate Japan determined from seismicity and Quaternary fault data, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 6829–6852, 1982.

  114. Yagi, Y., M. Kikuchi, and T. Sagiya, Co-seismic slip, post-seismic slip, and aftershocks associated with two large earthquakes in 1996 in Hyuga-nada, Japan, Earth Planets Space, 53, 793–803, 2001.

  115. Yagi, Y., M. Kikuchi, and T. Nishimura, Co-seismic slip, post-seismic slip, and largest aftershock associated with the 1994 Sanriku-haruka-oki, Japan, earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, doi:10.1029/2003GL018189, 2003.

  116. Yamanaka, Y. and M. Kikuchi, Asperity map of the Tohoku District, Newsletter of Earthq. Res. Inst., 34, 2–4, 2001.

  117. Yoshioka, S., T. Yabuki, T. Sagiya, T. Tada, and M. Matsu’ura, Interplate coupling and relative plate motions in the Tokai district, central Japan, deduced from geodetic data inversion using ABIC, Geophys. J. Int., 113, 607–621, 1993.

  118. Zumberge, J. F., M. B. Heflin, D. C. Jefferson, M. M. Watkins, and F. H. Webb, Precise point positioning for the efficient and robust analysis of GPS data from large networks, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5005–5017, 1997.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Takeshi Sagiya.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sagiya, T. A decade of GEONET: 1994–2003 —The continuous GPS observation in Japan and its impact on earthquake studies—. Earth Planet Sp 56, xxix–xli (2004) doi:10.1186/BF03353077

Download citation

Key words

  • GPS
  • crustal deformation
  • the Japanese Islands