- Open Access
Interpretation of various slip modes on a plate boundary based on laboratory and numerical experiments
Earth, Planets and Space volume 56, pages795–801(2004)
This paper discusses various slip modes on a plate boundary on the basis of a two-degree-of-freedom block-spring model and large-scale biaxial experiments, including a new experimental result on afterslip. We conducted slip experiments using large granite blocks with a pre-existing fault surface of 100 cm in length. Velocity-strengthening friction was given over a half of the fault length by inserting a thin Teflon sheet, while the other half retained velocity-weakening friction of the bare rock surface. Under a loading at a constant velocity, dynamic stick-slip repeated on the velocity-weakening region, causing afterslip on the velocity-strengthening region. The velocity-strengthening region experienced small coseismic slip as well, with the magnitude decreasing with the distance from the velocity-weakening region. The behaviors observed in the laboratory experiments were quantitatively simulated by a two-degree-of-freedom block-spring model, in which two blocks (Block 1 and Block 2) are connected by a liner spring and driven by a slowly moving driver. The friction on each block was assumed to obey rate and state dependent friction law. When a - b was assumed to be negative for Block 1, and positive for Block 2, afterslip occurred at Block 2. This model can also reproduce wide spectrum of slip modes by adjusting frictional parameters.
Bürgmann, R., M. G. Kogan, V. E. Levin, C. H. Scholz, R. V. King, and G. M. Steblov, Rapid aseismic moment release following the 5 December, 1997 Kronotsky, Kamchatka, earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1331–1334, 2001.
Boatwright, J. and M. Cocco, Frictional constraints on crustal faulting, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 13,895–13,909, 1996.
Dieterich, J. H., Modeling of rock friction: 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 2161–2168, 1979.
Dieterich, J. H. and B. D. Kilgore, Direct observation of frictional contacts: New insights for state-dependent properties, Pure Appl. Geophys., 143, 283–302, 1994.
Dragert, H., K. Wang, and T. S. James, A silent slip event on the deeper Cascadia subduction interface, Science, 292, 1525–1528, 2001.
Freymueller, J., C. Zweck, H. Flethcer, S. Hreinsdottir, S. C. Cohenm, and M. Wyss, The great Alaska ‘earthquake’ of 1998–2001, EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 82, 2001.
Hirose, H., K. Hirahara, F. Kimata, N. Fujii, and S. Miyazaki, A slow thrust slip event following the 1996 Hyuga-nada earthquakes beneath the Bungo channel, southwest Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3237–3240, 1999.
Huang, J. and D. L. Turcotte, Are earthquakes an example of deterministic chaos?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 223–226, 1990.
Kato, N. and T. Hirasawa, A numerical study on seismic coupling along subduction zones using a laboratory-derived friction law, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 102, 51–68, 1997.
Kimata, F., N. Fujii, and K. Hirahara, Slow slip event detected from vertical movements by leveling and line length changes by EDM at the Tokai region in 1987, Progr. Abstr. Seism. Soc. Jpn., A41, 2001.
Lowry, A. R., K. M. Larson, V. Kostoglodov, and R. Bilham, Transient fault slip in Guerreri, southern Mexico, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3253–3756, 2001.
Marone, C. J., C. H. Scholtz, and R. Bilham, On the mechanics of earthquake afterslip, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 8441–8452, 1991.
Nagai, R., M. Kikuchi, and Y. Yamanaka, Comparative study on the source processes of recurrent large earthquakes in Sanriku-oki region: the 1968 Tokachi-oki earthquake and the 1994 Sanriku-oki earthquake, Zisin, 54, 267–280, 2001 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Nussbaum, J. and A. Ruina, A two-degree-of freedom earthquake model with static/dynamic friction, Pure Appl. Geophys., 125, 629–656, 1987.
Ozawa, S., M. Murakami, M. Kaidzu, T. Tada, T. Sagiya, Y. Hatanaka, H. Yarai, and T. Nishimura, Detection and monitoring of ongoing aseismic slip in the Tokai region, central Japan, Science, 298, 1009–1012, 2002.
Perfettini, H. and J.-P. Avouca, Postseismic relaxation driven by brittle creep: A possible mechanism to reconcile geodetic measurements and the decay rate of aftershocks, application to the Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2003JB002488, 2004.
Reilinger, R. E., S. Ergintav, R. Burgmann, S. McClusky, O. Lenk, A. Barka, O. Gurkan, L. Hearn, K. L. Feigl, R. Cakmak, B. Aktug, H. Ozener, and M. N. Toksoz, Coseismic and postseismic fault slip for the 17 August 1999, M=7.5, Izmit, Turkey earthquake, Science, 289, 1519–1524, 2000.
Rice, J. R., Spatio-temporal complexity of slip on a fault, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 9885–9907, 1993.
Ruina, A., Slip instability and state variable friction laws, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 10,359–10,370, 1983.
Sagiya, T., Interplate coupling in the Kanto district, central Japan, and the Boso Peninsula silent earthquake in May 1996, PAGEOPH, 2003 (submitted).
Scholz, C. H., The Mechanics of Earthquake and Faulting, 433 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1990.
Stuart, W. D., Forecast model for great earthquakes at the Nankai trough subduction zone, Pure Appl. Geophys., 126, 619–641, 1988.
Tse, S. T. and J. R. Rice, Crustal earthquake instability in relation to the depth variation of frictional slip properties, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 9452–9472, 1986.
Yagi, Y., M. Kikuchi, and T. Nishimura, Co-seismic slip, postseismic slip, and largest aftershock associated with the 1994 Sanriku-haruka-oki, Japan, earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2177, doi:10.1029/2003GL018189, 2003.
Yoshida, S. and A. Kato, Single and double asperity failures in a large-scale biaxial experiment, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 451–454, 2001.
Yoshida, S. and N. Kato, Episodic aseismic slip in a two-degree-of-freedom block model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1681, doi:10.1029/2003GL017439, 2003.
About this article
Cite this article
Yoshida, S., Kato, A., Kato, N. et al. Interpretation of various slip modes on a plate boundary based on laboratory and numerical experiments. Earth Planet Sp 56, 795–801 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03353086
- Rate- and state-dependent friction law