Skip to main content

Determining the parameters of ionospheric perturbation caused by earthquakes using the quasi-optimum algorithm of spatiotemporal processing of TEC measurements

Abstract

We present the quasi-optimum algorithm of localization of a source of coseismic ionospheric perturbation based on GPS receivers’ network data processing. The initial data of the algorithm are the series of variations of ionospheric total electron content (TEC), reconstructed using the measurements of the phase delays of GPS signals. In order to select the TEC increments caused by ionospheric perturbation due to the earthquake, the TEC series are filtered using a special procedure. The algorithm realizes coherent summation of all TEC series of GPS array reasoning from the maximization of the energy of the total signal of the ionospheric response to earthquake. The quasi-optimum algorithm allows determination of the perturbation propagation velocity as well as of the coordinates, height and “switch-on” time of a source of coseismic ionospheric disturbance without prior information about the perturbation form and the site and time of the main shock of earthquake. We used the algorithm for measuring the parameters of ionospheric perturbations which accompanied the earthquake in the vicinity of Hokkaido Island on September 25, 2003 and the earthquake near the south coast of Honshu Island on September 5, 2004. The results of these experiments show the high accuracy of the perturbation source coordinates estimation (33 km and 27 km respectively with reference of the earthquakes epicenters). The estimations of perturbations propagation velocity (820 ± 60 m/s and 460 ± 40 m/s), heights (340 ± 80 km and 370 ± 130 km) and “switch-on” delay (346 s and 507 s) of a source of the perturbation obtained in both experiments are in agreement with a theory according to which coseismic atmospheric disturbance propagates within a narrow cone of zenith angles up to ionospheric heights and then diverges in the form of a spherical wave with the radial velocity close to the speed of sound at these heights. It is also in agreement with the results of earlier researches.

References

  • Afraimovich, E. L., GPS global detection of the ionospheric response to solar flares, Radio Sci., 35(6), 1417–1424, 2000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Afraimovich, E. L., E. A. Kosogorov, N. P. Perevalova, and A. V. Plotnikov, The use of GPS array in detecting shock-acoustic wave generated during rocket launchings, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 63, 1941–1957, 2001a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Afraimovich, E. L., N. P. Perevalova, A. V. Plotnikov, and A. M. Uralov, The shock-acoustic waves generated by the earthquakes, Ann. Geophys., 19, 395–409, 2001b.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Afraimovich, E. L., V. V. Chernuhov, and V. V. Kiryushkin, Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of the Ionospheric Disturbance Induced by Shock Acoustic Waves Due to Rocket Launching, J. Commun. Technol. Electron., 46, 1199–1206, 2001c.

    Google Scholar 

  • Afraimovich, E. L., V. V. Kiryushkin, and N. P. Perevalova, Determination of the Characteristics of Ionospheric Perturbations in the Near-Field Region of an Earthquake Epicenter, J. Commun. Technol. Electron., 47, 739–747, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Afraimovich, E. L., E. I. Astaf’eva, and V. V. Kiryushkin, Ionospheric Disturbance in the Near-Region of an Earthquake Epicenter on 25 September 2003, Radiophys. Quantum Electron., 48, 299–313, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Afraimovich, E. L., E. I. Astaf’eva, and V. V. Kiryushkin, Localization of the source of ionospheric disturbance generated during an earthquake, Int. J. Geomagnet. Aeronomy, 6, GI2002, doi:10.1029/2004GI000092, 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  • Calais, E. and J. B. Minster, GPS detection of ionospheric perturbations following the January 1994, Northridge earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1045–1048, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Calais, E. and J. B. Minster, GPS detection of ionospheric perturbations following Space Shuttle assent, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1897–1900, 1996.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Calais, E., J. B. Minster, M. A. Hofton, and M. A. H. Hedlin, Ionospheric signature of surface mine blasts from Global Positioning System measurements, Geophys. J. Int., 132, 191–202, 1998.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Calais, E., J. S. Haase, and J. B. Minster, Detection of ionospheric perturbations using a dense GPS array in Southern California, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1628–1631, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fitzgerald, T. J., Observations of total electron content perturbations in GPS signals caused by a ground level explosion, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 59, 829–834, 1997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Francis, S. N., Global propagation of atmospheric gravity waves: A review, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 37, 1011–1039, 1975.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heki, K. and J. Ping, Directiivity and apparent velocity of the coseismic ionospheric disturbances observed with a dense GPS array, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 236, 845–855, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hocke, K. and K. Schlegel, A review of atmospheric gravity waves and travelling ionospheric disturbances: 1982–1995, Ann. Geophys., 14, 917–940, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Montes, H. A. and E. S. Posmentier, Co-phase analysis of atmospheric wave data, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., 26, 271–278, 1971.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roble, R. G., The calculated and observed diurnal variation of the ionosphere over Millstone Hill on 23–24 March 1970, Planet. and Space Sci., 23, 1017–1033, 1975.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rudenko, G. V. and A. M. Uralov, Calculation of ionospheric effects due to acoustic radiation from an underground nuclear explosion, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 57, 225–236, 1995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Edward L. Afraimovich.

Rights and permissions

Open Access  This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kiryushkin, V.V., Afraimovich, E.L. Determining the parameters of ionospheric perturbation caused by earthquakes using the quasi-optimum algorithm of spatiotemporal processing of TEC measurements. Earth Planet Sp 59, 267–278 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03353104

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03353104

Key words

  • GPS
  • earthquakes
  • total electron content
  • arrays
  • spatiotemporal processing