Skip to main content

Advertisement

You are viewing the new article page. Let us know what you think. Return to old version

Letter | Open | Published:

Ice Box Calorimetry: A useful method for estimating heat discharge rates through steaming ground

Abstract

We developed a new technique, Ice Box Calorimetry, for estimating heat discharge rates through steaming ground. Ice within an aluminum box provides a powerful tool for measuring the total heat transfer from the ground surface, including conductive heat, convective heat, and latent heat within vapor. Using this method, we are able to rapidly measure heat discharge rates without the need for specialized apparatus. Applying Ice Box Calorimetry to the Nishiyama steaming ground at Usu volcano, Japan in September 2006, we identified local variations in heat discharge rates. The total heat discharged from the entire geothermal area in September 2006 is estimated to be 27 MW, which represents just 1% of the rate immediately following an eruption from the volcano in 2000.

References

  1. Benseman, R. F., The calorimetry of steaming ground in thermal areas, J. Geophys. Res., 64, 123–126, 1959.

  2. Goto, A., T. Kagiyama, T. Miyamoto, A. Yokoo, and H. Taniguchi, Long-term prediction of Usu volcano 2000 eruptive activity based on the measurements of heat discharge rate, Geoph. Bull. Hokkaido Univ., 70, 137–144, 2007 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  3. Hashimoto, T., T. Hurst, A. Suzuki, T. Mogi, Y. Yamaya, and M. Tamura, The role of Thermal Viscous Remanent Magnetisation (TVRM) in magnetic changes associated with volcanic eruptions: insights from the 2000 eruption of Mt Usu, Japan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., (submitted).

  4. Hochstein, M. P. and C. J. Bromley, Measurement of heat flux from steaming ground, Geothermics, 34, 131–158, 2005.

  5. Kagiyama, T., Evaluation methods of heat discharge and their applications to the major active volcanoes in Japan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 9, 87–97, 1981.

  6. Kazahaya, K., H. Shinohara, and G. Saito, Excessive degassing of Izu-Oshima Volcano—Magma convection in a conduit, Bull. Volcanol., 563, 207–216, 1994.

  7. Matsushima, N., Mathematical simulation of magma-hydrothermal activity associated with the 1977 eruption of Usu volcano, Earth Planets Space, 55, 559–568, 2003.

  8. Miura, D. and K. Niida, Two-stage growth model of cryptodome by shallow intrusions, the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, northern Japan, Bull. Vol. Soc. Japan, 47, 119–130, 2002 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  9. Oppenheimer, C. and A. J. S. McGonigle, Exploiting ground-based optical sensing technologies for volcanic gas surveillance, Ann. Geophys., 47, 1455–1470, 2004.

  10. Saba, M., Y. Nishida, T. Mogi, S. Takakura, and N. Matsushima, Development of geothermal field following the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano as revealed by ground temperature, resistivity and self-potential variations, Ann. Geophys., 50, 79–92, 2007.

  11. Sekioka, M., Proposal of a convenient version of the heat balance technique estimating heat flux on geothermal and volcanic fields by means of infrared remote sensing, Memoirs of the National Defense Academy Japan, 23, 95–103, 1983.

  12. Sekioka, M. and K. Yuhara, Heat flux estimation in geothermal areas based on the heat balance of the ground surface, J. Geophys. Res., 79(14), 2053–2058, 1974.

  13. Terada, A., H. Oshima, N. Matsushima, and T. Kagiyama, Quantitative evaluation of heat discharge rates from the geothermal area formed during the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, Japan: Comparison with magma cooling processes following the 1977 eruption, J. Geotherm. Res. Soc. Japan, submitted (in Japanese with English abstract).

  14. White, D. E., Rapid heat-flow surveying of geothermal areas, utilizing individual snowfalls as calorimeters, J. Geophys. Res., 74, 5191–5201, 1969.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Akihiko Terada.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Key words

  • Ice Box Calorimetry
  • ice
  • steaming ground
  • heat discharge rate
  • Usu volcano