- Open Access
Propagation characteristics of nighttime mesospheric and thermospheric waves observed by optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers at middle and low latitudes
Earth, Planets and Space volume 61, pages479–491 (2009)
We review measurements of nighttime atmospheric/ionospheric waves in the upper atmosphere in Japan, Indonesia, and Australia, using all-sky airglow imagers of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTIs). The imagers observe two-dimensional patterns of airglow emissions from oxygen (wavelength: 557.7 nm) and hydroxyl (OH) (near-infrared band) in the mesopause region (80–100 km) and from oxygen (630.0 nm) in the thermosphere/ionosphere (200–300 km). Several statistical studies were done to investigate propagation characteristics of small-scale (less than 100 km) gravity waves in the mesopause region and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs, ∼100–1,000 km) in the thermosphere/ionosphere. Clear seasonal variations of occurrence and propagation directions were reported for these waves. The propagation directions in the mesopause region are controlled by wind filtering, ducting processes and relative location to the wave sources in the troposphere. Poleward-propagating waves tend to be observed in the summer in the mesopause region at several stations, suggesting that mesospheric gravity waves are generated by intense convective activity in the equatorial troposphere. On the other hand, systematic equatorward and westward motions were observed for all seasons for nighttime MSTIDs in the midlatitude ionosphere with geomagnetic conjugacy between the northern and southern hemispheres. Ionospheric instabilities may play important role for the generation and propagation of these MSTIDs. We also give an example of simultaneous observation of quasi-periodic southward-moving waves in the mesopause region and in the thermosphere at the geographic equator. From these results, we discuss mean wind acceleration by mesospheric gravity waves and penetration of gravity waves from the mesosphere to the thermosphere.
Ejiri, M. K., K. Shiokawa, T. Ogawa, K. Igarashi, T. Nakamura, and T. Tsuda, Statistical study of short-period gravity waves in OH and OI nightglow images at two separated sites, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D21), 4679, doi:10.1029/2002JD002795, 2003.
Fritts, D. C., S. L. Vadas, and Y. Yamada, An estimate of strong local body forcing and gravity wave radiation based on OH airglow and meteor radar observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1429, doi: 10.1029/2001GL013753, 2002.
Fukao, S., M. C. Kelley, T. Shirakawa, T. Takami, M. Yamamoto, T. Tsuda, and S. Kato, Turbulent upwelling of the mid-latitude ionosphere 1. Observational results by the MU radar, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 3725–3746, 1991.
Hosokawa, K., K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, A. Nakajima, T. Ogawa, and J. D. Kelly, Estimating drift velocity of polar cap patches with all-sky airglow imager at Resolute Bay, Canada, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L15111, doi:10.1029/2006GL026916, 2006.
Kelley, M. C. and S. Fukao, Turbulent upwelling of the mid-latitude ionosphere 2. Theoretical framework, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 3747–3753, 1991.
Kelley, M. C. and J. J. Makela, Resolution of the Discrepancy between Experiment and Theory of Midlatitude F-Region Structures, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(13), 2589–2592, 2001.
Kotake, N., Y. Otsuka, T. Tsugawa, T. Ogawa, and A. Saito, Climatological study of GPS total electron content variations caused by medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A04306, doi:10.1029/2005JA011418, 2006.
Kubota, M., K. Shiokawa, M. K. Ejiri, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, T. Sakanoi, H. Fukunishi, M. Yamamoto, S. Fukao, and A. Saito, Traveling ionospheric disturbances observed in the OI 630-nm nightglow images over Japan by using a multi-point imager network during the FRONT campaign, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 4037–4040, 2000.
Mendillo, M., J. Baumgardner, D. Nottingham, J. Aarons, B. Reinisch, J. Scali, and M. Kelley, Investigations of thermospheric-ionospheric dynamics with 6300 A images from the Arecibo Observatory, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 7331–7343, 1997.
Miller, C. A., W. E. Swartz, M. C. Kelley, M. Mendillo, D. Nottingham, J. Scali, and B. Reinisch, Electrodynamics of midlatitude spread F, 1. Observations of unstable, gravity wave-induced ionospheric electric fields at tropical latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 11,521–11,532, 1997.
Nakamura, T., A. Higashikawa, T. Tsuda, and Y. Matsushita, Seasonal variations of gravity wave structures in OH airglow with a CCD imager at Shigaraki, Earth Planets Space, 51, 897–906, 1999.
Nakamura, T., T. Aono, T. Tsuda, A. G. Admiranto, E. Achmad, and Suranto, Mesospheric gravity waves over a tropical convective region observed by OH airglow imaging in Indonesia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(17), 1882, doi:10.1029/2003GL017619, 2003.
Ogawa, T., E. Sagawa, Y. Otsuka, K. Shiokawa, T. J. Immel, S. B. Mende, and P. Wilkinson, Simultaneous ground- and satellite-based airglow observations of geomagnetic conjugate plasma bubbles in the equatorial anomaly, Earth Planets Space, 57, 385–392, 2005.
Ogawa, T., Y. Otsuka, K. Shiokawa, T. Tsugawa, A. Saito, K. Hoshinoo, K. Matunaga, M. Kubota, and M. Ishii, Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances and plasma bubbles observed by an all-sky airglow imager at Yonaguni, Japan, Terr. Atmos. Ocean Sci., 2008 (in press).
Otsuka, Y., K. Shiokawa, T. Ogawa, and P. Wilkinson, Geomagnetic conjugate observations of equatorial airglow depletions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(15), 43–1–4, 10.1029/2002GL015347, 2002.
Otsuka, Y., K. Shiokawa, T. Ogawa, and P. Wilkinson, Geomagnetic conjugate observations of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances at midlatitude using all-sky airglow imagers, Geophys. Res. Lett., L15803, doi:10.1029/2004GL020262, 2004.
Otsuka, Y., K. Shiokawa, and T. Ogawa, Equatorial ionospheric scintillations and zonal irregularity drifts observed with closely-spaced GPS receivers in Indonesia, J. Meteor. Soc. Jpn., 84A, 343–351, 2006.
Perkins, F., Spread F and ionospheric currents, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 218–226, 1973.
Saito, A., M. Nishimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Kubota, K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Tsugawa, S. Fukao, T. Ogawa, M. Ishii, T. Sakanoi, and S. Miyazaki, Traveling ionospheric disturbances detected in the FRONT campaign, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 689–692, 2001.
Sakaguchi, K., K. Shiokawa, A. Ieda, Y. Miyoshi, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Connors, E. F. Donovan, and F. J. Rich, Simultaneous ground and satellite observations of an isolated proton arc at subauroral latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A04202, doi:10.1029/2006JA012135, 2007.
Shepherd, G. G., R. G. Roble, C. McLandress, and W. E. Ward, WINDII observations of the 558 nm emission in the lower thermosphere: The influence of dynamics on composition, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 59(6), 655–667, 1997.
Shiokawa, K., Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, T. Ogawa, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, and R. H. Wiens, Development of optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers (OMTI), Earth Planets Space, 51, 887–896, 1999.
Shiokawa, K., Y. Katoh, M. Satoh, M. K. Ejiri, and T. Ogawa, Integrating-sphere calibration of all-sky cameras for nightglow measurements, Adv. Space Sci., 26, 1025–1028, 2000a.
Shiokawa, K., M. K. Ejiri, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, K. Igarashi, A. Saito, and T. Nakamura, Multi-point observations of short-period mesospheric gravity waves over Japan during the FRONT campaign, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 4057–4060, 2000b.
Shiokawa, K., Y. Otsuka, M. K. Ejiri, Y. Sahai, T. Kadota, C. Ihara, T. Ogawa, K. Igarashi, S. Miyazaki, and A. Saito, Imaging observations of the equatorward limit of midlatitude traveling ionospheric disturbances, Earth Planets Space, 54, 57–62, 2002.
Shiokawa, K., C. Ihara, Y. Otsuka, and T. Ogawa, Statistical study of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances using midlatitude airglow images, J. Geophys. Res., 108(A1), 1052, doi:10.1029/2002JA009491, 2003a.
Shiokawa, K., Y. Otsuka, C. Ihara, T. Ogawa, and F. J. Rich, Ground and satellite observations of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance at midlatitude, J. Geophys. Res., 108(A4), 1145, doi:10.1029/2002JA009639, 2003b.
Shiokawa, K., Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, and P. Wilkinson, Time evolution of high-altitude plasma bubbles imaged at geomagnetic conjugate points, Ann. Geophys., 22, 3137–3143, 2004.
Shiokawa, K., Y. Otsuka, T. Tsugawa, T. Ogawa, A. Saito, K. Ohshima, M. Kubota, T. Maruyama, T. Nakamura, M. Yamamoto, and P. Wilkinson, Geomagnetic conjugate observation of nighttime medium- and large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances: FRONT3 campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A05303, doi:10.1029/2004JA010845, 2005.
Shiokawa, K., Y. Otsuka, and T. Ogawa, Quasiperiodic southward moving waves in 630-nm airglow images in the equatorial thermosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A06301, doi:10.1029/2005JA011406, 2006.
Sobral, J. H. A., H. Takahashi, M. A. Abdu, P. Muralikrishna, Y. Sahai, C. J. Zamlutti, E. R. DE Paura, and P. P. Batista, Determination of the quenching rate of the O(1D) by O(3P) from rocket-borne optical (630 nm) and electron density data, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 7791–7798, 1993.
Suzuki, S., Study of mesospheric gravity wave dynamics based on airglow imaging observations at middle and low latitudes, Ph.D. thesis, Nagoya University, 2007.
Suzuki, S., K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, and P. Wilkinson, Statistical characteristics of gravity waves observed by an all-sky imager at Darwin, Australia, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D20S07, doi:10.1029/2003JD004336, 2004.
Suzuki, S., K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements, Earth Planets Space, 59, 421–428, 2007.
Taylor, M. J., M. B. Bishop, and V. Taylor, All-sky measurements of short period waves imaged in the OI(557.7nm), Na(589.2nm) and near infrared OH and O2(0,1) nightglow emissions during the ALOHA-93 campaign, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2833–2836, 1995.
Tsuda, T., Y. Murayama, M. Yamamoto, S. Kato, and S. Fukao, Seasonal variation of momentum flux in the mesosphere observed with the MU radar, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17(6), 725–728, 1990.
Vadas, S. L., Horizontal and vertical propagation and dissipation of gravity waves in the thermosphere from lower atmospheric and thermospheric sources, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A06305, doi:10.1029/2006JA011845, 2007.
Vadas, S. L and D. C. Fritts, Thermospheric responses to gravity waves: Influences of increasing viscosity and thermal diffusivity, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15103, doi:10.1029/2004JD005574, 2005.
Vadas, S. L. and D. C. Fritts, Influence of solar variability on gravity wave structure and dissipation in the thermosphere from tropospheric convection, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A10S12, doi:10.1029/2005JA011510, 2006.
Vadas, S. L., D. C. Fritts, and M. J. Alexander, Mechanism for the generation of secondary waves in wave breaking regions, J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 194–214, 2003.
Vincent, R. A., Gravity-wave motions in the mesosphere, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 46, 119–128, 1984.
Walterscheid, R. L., J. H. Hecht, R. A. Vincent, I. M. Reid, J. Woithe, and M. P. Hickey, Analysis and interpretation of airglow and radar observations of quasi-monochromatic gravity waves in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Adelaide, Australia (35°S, 138°E), J. At-mos. Terr. Phys., 61, 461–478, 1999.