- Open Access
Gravity structure of Akan composite caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan: Application of lake water corrections
Earth, Planets and Space volume 61, pages 933–938 (2009)
Akan volcano, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, is characterized by a rectangular-shaped caldera (Akan caldera: 24 km by 13 km) with a complex history of caldera-forming eruptions during the Quaternary. A new Bouguer anomaly map of the caldera is presented on the basis of a gravity survey around Akan volcano. As part of and in addition to this survey, we applied gravimetry over the frozen caldera lake including lake water corrections. The Bouguer map shows the distribution of at least three sub-circular minima indicative of multiple depressions inside the caldera. Lake water corrections, performed by a numerical integration method using rectangular prisms, sharpen edges of the sub-circular minima. This gravity feature is consistent with geological investigations suggesting that caldera-forming eruptions of Akan volcano occurred from at least three different sources. It is concluded that Akan caldera can be described as a composite caldera with three major depressed segments.
Cole, J. W., S. J. A. Brown, R. M. Burt, S. W. Beresford, and C. J. N. Wilson, Lithic types in ignimbrites as a guide to the evolution of a caldera complex, Taupo volcanic centre, New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 80, 217–237, 1998.
Cole, J.W., D.M. Milner, and K. D. Spinks, calderas and caldera structure: a review, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 69, 1–26, 2005.
Davy, B. W. and T. G. Caldwell, Gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys of the caldera complex, Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 81, 69–89, 1998.
Fournier, N., H. Rymer, G. Williams-Jones, and J. Brenes, Highresolution gravity survey: investigation of subsurface structures at Poás volcando, Costa Rica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L15602, doi:10.1029/2004GL020563, 2004.
Froger, J.-L., J.-F. Lénat, J. Chorowicz, J.-L. Le Pennec, J.-L. Bourdier, O. Köse, O. Zimitoglu, N. M. Gündogdu, and A. Gourgaud, Hidden calderas evidenced by multisource geophysical data; example of Cappadocian Calderas, Central Anatolia, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 185, 99–128, 1998.
Goto, Y., A. Funayama, N. Gouchi, and T. Itaya, K-Ar ages of the Akan-Shiretoko volcanic chain lying oblique to the Kurile trench: Implications for the tectonic control of volcanism, Island Arc, 9, 204–218, 2000.
GSJ (Geological Survey of Japan), Gravity CD-ROM of Japan (CD-ROM), Digital Geoscience Map Series P-2, Geol. Surv. Jpn., Tsukuba, Ibaraki., 2000.
GSJ (Geological Survey of Japan), Gravity CD-ROM of Japan (ver. 2) (CD-ROM), Digital Geoscience Map Series P-2, Geol. Surv. Jpn., Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 2004.
Gudmundsson, M. T. and Th. Högnadóttir, Volcanic systems and calderas in the Vatnajökull region, central Iceland: Constraints on crustal structure from gravity data, J. Geodyn., 43, 153–169, 2007.
Hasegawa, T. and M. Nakagawa, Stratigraphy of Early to Middle Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits around Akan caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, J. Geol. Soc. Jpn., 113, 53–72, 2007 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Hasegawa, T., E. Ishii, and M. Nakagawa, Evolution of Akan Caldera, East Hokkaido, indicated by analysis of lithic fragments in pumice fall deposits, The Earth (Chikyu) Monthly, 28, 283–289, 2006 (in Japanese).
Komazawa, M., Gravimetric analysis of Aso Volcano and its interpretation, J. Geod. Soc. Jpn., 41, 17–45, 1995.
Lipman, P. W., Subsidence of ash-flow calderas: relation to. caldera size and chamber geometry, Bull. Volcanol., 59, 198–218, 1997.
Lipman, P. W., Calderas, in Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, edited by H. Sigurdsson et al., 643–662, Academic Press, San Diego, 2000.
NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization), Akan area, Report of Geothermal development promotion survey, 26, 1133 pp., New Energy and Indus. Technol. Dev. Org., Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 1992 (in Japanese).
Ohkawa, S. and I. Yokoyama, Subsurface structure of Akan caldera based on gravity anomalies, Geophys. Bull. Hokkaido Univ., 38, 17–29, 1979 (in Japanese with English Abstract).
Reubi, O. and I. A. Nicholls, Structure and dynamics of a silicic magmatic system associated with caldera-forming eruptions at Batur Volcanic Field, Bali, Indonesia, J. Petrol., 46, 1367–1391, 2005.
Rymer, H. and G. C. Brown, Gravity fields and the interpretation of volcanic structures: geological discrimination and temporal evolution, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 27, 229–254, 1986.
Smith, V. C., P. Shane, and I. A. Nairn, Trends in rhyolite geochemistry, mineralogy and magma storage during the last 50 kyr at Okataina and Taupo volcanic center, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 148, 372–406, 2005.
Suzuki-Kamata, K., H. Kamata, and C. R. Bacon, Evolution of the calderaforming eruption at Crater Lake, Oregon, indicated by component analysis of lithic fragments, J. Geophys. Res., 98(B8), 14059–14074, 1993.
Wessel, P. and W. H. F. Smith, New version of the generic mapping tools released, EOS Trans. AGU, 76, 329, Suppl., Aug. 15, 1995.
Williams, H. and A. R. McBirney, Calderas and cauldrons, in Volcanology, 207–238, Freeman, Cooper and Co., San Francisco, 1979.
Wilson, C. J. N., Stratigraphy, chronology, styles and dynamics of late Quaternary eruptions from Taupo volcano, New Zealand, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, A343, 205–306, 1993.
Yamamoto, A., Spherical terrain corrections for gravity anomaly using a digital elevation model gridded with nodes at every 50 m, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., 11, 845–880, http://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2115/8866/1/11%286%29%20p845-880.pdf/dspace/bitstream/2115/8866/1/11%286%29 p845-880.pdf, 2002.
Yokoyama, I., Volcanic calderas and Meteorite craters with the special relation to their gravity anomalies, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., 2, 37–47, 1963.
Yokoyama, I. and S. Ohkawa, The subsurface structure of the Aira Caldera and its vicinity in southern Kyushu, Japan, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 30, 253–282, 1986.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
To view a copy of this licence, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
About this article
Cite this article
Hasegawa, T., Yamamoto, A., Kamiyama, H. et al. Gravity structure of Akan composite caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan: Application of lake water corrections. Earth Planet Sp 61, 933–938 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03353205
- Gravity anomaly
- Akan volcano
- composite caldera
- lake water correction