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Hard X-rays from Slow Flares


“Slow LDEs” are those for which the rise phase is slow, as well as the decay phase. Such flares follow the Neupert effect, which implies that the non-thermal energy release has a similar relationship to heating as in a normal impulsive flare. Based on a sample of 53 slow LDEs during the first nine years of Yohkoh observations, we find 19 for which substantial overlap occurs with BATSE hard X-ray observations. These events tend strongly to have extended hard X-ray emission even though their hard X-ray emission does not tend to be “impulsive” in the sense of rapid variation. The hard X-ray fluences for these 19 events correlate with the soft X-ray peak fluxes, implying strong non-thermal particle acceleration even for these relatively slow energy-release rates. These events often correspond to the occurrence of “supra-arcade downflows,” a phenomenon consistent with the classical reconnection model for gradual-phase flare energy release. This correspondence suggests a close relationship, not depending strongly upon time scale, between large-scale reconnection and the acceleration of non-thermal electrons.


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Correspondence to H. S. Hudson.

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Hudson, H.S., McKenzie, D.E. Hard X-rays from Slow Flares. Earth Planet Sp 53, 581–583 (2001).

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  • Coronal Mass Ejection
  • Magnetic Reconnection
  • Rise Phase
  • Neupert Effect
  • Coronal Reconnection