- Open Access
Is the plastic flow uniformly distributed below the seismogenic region?
Earth, Planets and Space volume 54, pages1085–1090(2002)
The cut-off depth of seismicity in and around the Nojima fault broken by the 1995 Kobe earthquake occurring in the intraplate Japan was compared with a brittle-ductile transition depth of the widely-accepted strength profile model of the crust. It was found that the cut-off depth is much deeper than the transition depth under the assumption that wet granite is deformed at a strain rate of 10−15/s. Such a small strain rate implies that the plastic flow is uniformly distributed below the seismogenic region. When the strain rate is assumed to be greater than 10−13, the cut-off depth can be attributed to the transition depth. This suggests that deformation is localized in a narrow fault zone below the seismogenic region even in the intraplate region.
Bell, T. H. and M. A. Etheridge, Microstructure of mylonite and their descriptive terminology, Lithos, 6, 337–348, 1973.
Brace, W. F. and D. L. Kohlstedt, Limits on lithospheric stress imposed by laboratory experiments, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 6248–6252, 1980.
Bourne, S. J., P. C. England, and B. Parsons, The motion of crustal blocks driven by flow of the lower lithosphere and implications for slip rates of continental strike-slip faults, Nature, 391, 655–659, 1998.
Byerlee, J. D., Friction of rocks, Pure and Appl. Geophys., 116, 615–626, 1978.
Chester, F. M., A rheologic model for wet crust applied to strike-slip faults, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 13,033–13,044, 1995.
Deng, J., M. Gurnis, H. Kanamori, and E. Hauksson, Viscoelastic flow in the lower crust after the 1992 Landers, California earthquake, Science, 282, 1,689–1,692, 1998.
Dietz, L. D. and W. L. Ellsworth, The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, California Earthquake and its aftershocks: Geometry of the sequence from high-resolution locations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 1417–1420, 1990.
Furukawa, Y. and S. Uyeda, Thermal state under Tohoku arc with consideration of crustal heat generation, Kazan (Bull. Volcano. Soc. Japan), 2, 31, 15–28, 1986 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Goetze, C. and B. Evans, Stress and temperature in the bending lithosphere as constrained by experimental rock mechanics, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 59, 463–478, 1979.
Hansen, F. D. and N. L. Carter, Creep of selected crustal rocks at 1000 Mpa, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 63, 437, 1982.
Hirata, N. and Japanese university group of the urgent joint observation for the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, J. Phys. Earth, 44, 317–328, 1996.
Holbrook, W. S., W. D. Mooney, and N. I. Christensen, The seismic velocity structure of the deep continental crust, in Continental Lower Crust, edited by D. M. Fountain, R. Arculus, and R. W. Kay, pp. 1–43, Elsevier, 1992.
Iio, Y., Depth-dependent change in the focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes in a seismogenic region: Implications for the brittle-plastic transition, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 11,209–11,216, 1996.
Iio, Y., Frictional coefficient on faults in a seismogenic region inferred from earthquake mechanism solutions, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5403–5412, 1997.
Ikeda, R., Y. Iio, and K. Omura, In-situ stress measurements in NIED borehole in and around the fault zone near the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake, Japan, Island, Island Arc, 10, 252–260, 2001.
Ito, K., Regional variations of the cutoff depth of seismicity in the crust and their relation to heat flow and large inland-earthquakes, J. Phys. Earth, 38, 223–250, 1990.
Jaeger, J. C. and N. W. G. Cook, Fundamentals of rock mechanics, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1979.
Jones, A. G., Electrical conductivity of the continental lower crust, in Continental Lower Crust, edited by D. M. Fountain, R. Arculus, and R. W. Kay, pp. 81–143, Elsevier, 1992.
Kaufmann, G. and F. Amelung, Reservior-induced deformation and continental rheology in vicinity of Lake Mead, Nevada, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 16,341–16,358, 2000.
Kirby, S. H., Tectonic stress in the lithosphere: Constraints provided by the experimental deformation of rock, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 6353–6363, 1980.
Kitajima, T., Y. Kobayashi, R. Ikeda, Y. Iio, and K. Omura, Terrestrial heat flow in Hirabayashi, Awaji, Island, Isrand Arc, 10, 318–325, 2001.
Kobayashi, Y., A relationship between the distribution of focal depth of micro-earthquakes and surface heat flow in the southern Japan and central Japan, Proc. Symp. Earthquake Pred. Res. (1976), National Committee of Geophysics and Seismological Society of Japan, 184–193, 1977 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Kohlstedt, D. L., B. Evans, and S. J. Mackwell, Strength of the lithosphere: Constraints imposed by laboratory experiments, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 17,587–17,602, 1995.
Kronenberg, A. K., P. Segall, and G. H. Wolf, Hydrolytic weakening and penetrative deformation within a natural shear zone, in The brittle-ductile transition in rocks (The heard volume), edited by A. G. Duba, W. B. Durham, J. W. Handin, and H. F. Wang, Geophys. Monogr., 56, pp. 21–36, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1990.
Kyoto Univ., Abnormal initial rise of the foreshock of the 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture earthquake, Report of the coordinate committee for earthquake prediction, 54, 620–623, 1995.
Lachenbruch, A. H., Crustal temparature and heat production: Implications of the linear heat flow relation, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 3291–3300, 1970.
Miyazaki, S., T. Tada, and T. Sagiya, Present crustal deformation in Japanese Island revealed by the GPS continuous measurement, Earth Monthly, 25, 146–151, 1999 (in Japanese).
Nakamura, M. and M. Ando, Aftershock distribution of the January 17, 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake determined by the JHD method, J. Phys. Earth, 44, 329–335, 1996.
Ohmi, S., Data processing of the urgent joint observation of aftershocks of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, Program and abstract of the 1995 Seismol. Soc. Jpn. Fall meeting, A39, 1995 (in Japanese).
Ohnaka, M., Earthquake source nucleation: a physical model for short term precursors, Tectonophys., 211, 149–178, 1992.
Paterson, M. S., Problem in the extrapolation of laboratory rheological data, Tectonophys., 133, 33–43, 1987.
Piao, C., T. Iwasaki, T. Yoshii, S. Sakai, T. Takeda, T. Moriya, T. Oomura, F. Yamazaki, K. Ito, Y. Shimada, A. Yamazaki, K. Tashiro, K. Miyashita, and H. Miyamachi, Crustal structure in and around the source region of the 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefectural Earthquake deduced from seismic refraction experiment 2, Program and abstract of the 1997 Joint Geophysical meeting, E11-P14, 1997 (in Japanese).
Research Group for Active Faults of Japan, Active faults in Japan, sheet maps and inventories, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo, 1980.
Sagiya, T., T. Tada, and S. Miyazaki, Deformation in Japanese Island by GPS measurements, Earth Monthly, 21, 236–243, 1999 (in Japanese).
Savage, J., Equivalent strike-slip earthquake cycles in half space and lithosphere-athenosphere earth models, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 4873–4879, 1990.
Savage, J. C. and J. L. Svarc, Postseismic deformation associated with the 1992 Landers earthquake, southern California, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 7,565–7,577, 1997.
Shen, Z. K., D. D. Jackson, Y. Feng, M. Cline, P. Fang, and Y. Bock, Post-seismic deformation following the Landers earthquake, California, 28 June 1992, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 84, 780–791, 1994.
Shimada, M., Lithosphere strength inferred from fracture strength of rocks at high confining pressures and temperatures, Tectnophys., 217, 55–64, 1993.
Sibson, R. H., Fault zone models, heat flow and the depth distribution of earthquakes in the continental crust of the United States, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 72, 151–163, 1982.
Strehlau, J., A discussion of the depth extent of rupture in large continental earthquakes, in Earthquake Source Mechanics, Geophys. Monogr., 37, edited by S. Das, J. Boatwright, and C. H. Scholz, pp. 131–145, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1986.
Tse, S. T. and J. R. Rice, Crustal earthquake instability in relation to the depth variation of frictional properties, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 9,452–9,472, 1986.
Utada, H., Y. Hamano, and J. Segawa, Conductivity anomaly around the Japanese islands, Geology and Geophysics of the Japan Sea, Japan-USSR Monograph Series, 1, pp. 103–149, 1996.
About this article
Cite this article
Iio, Y., Kobayashi, Y. Is the plastic flow uniformly distributed below the seismogenic region?. Earth Planet Sp 54, 1085–1090 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03353306
- Fault Zone
- Lower Crust
- Slip Rate
- Transition Depth
- Kobe Earthquake