Special Issue: Slip and Flow Processes in and below the Seismogenic Region
- Open Access
Temperature distribution and focal depth in the crust of the northeastern Japan
Earth, Planets and Space volume 54, pages 1109–1113 (2002)
The thickness of seismogenic crust layer correlates with surface heat flow in most interplate seismic areas of the world (e.g., Sibson, 1982). Although the inverse relationship between heat flow and the base of seismogenic zone is obvious, the quantitative relationships are less certain and there should be variability of the focal depths among different tectonic settings. Comparisons of the heat flow (Yamano et al., 1997), thermal gradient (Tanaka et al., 1999) and earthquake (Japan Meteorological Agency, JMA) databases for the northeastern Japan provide detailed geologic and geophysical information about the earthquake process of island arc. Temperatures in the crust were calculated using a steady-state, one-dimensional, heat conductive transport model with heat generation as a function of heat flow and thermal gradient. The evaluated temperatures for D90, the depth above which 90% of earthquakes occur, range between 200°C and 500°C except for high heat flow and thermal gradient data. The consistency of temperature for D90 over a large depth interval supports that the temperature is the dominant factor governing the focal depth in the crust.
Committee for Catalog of Quaternary Volcanoes in Japan (ed.), Catalog of Quaternary volcanoes in Japan, The Volcanological Society of Japan, 1999.
Doser, D. I. and H. Kanamori, Depth of seismicity in the Imperial Valley region (1977–1983) and its relationship to heat flow, crustal structure, and the October 15, 1979, earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 675–688, 1986.
Editorial Committee for the Geology of the Japanese Islands (ed.), Computer Graphics: Geology of the Japanese Islands (CD-ROM Version), 2002.
Fowler, C. M. R., The Solid Earth, 472 pp., Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Hasegawa, A. and A. Yamamoto, Deep, low-frequency microearthquakes in or around seismic low-velocity zones beneath active volcanoes in the northeastern Japan, Tectonophys., 233, 233–252, 1994.
Hasegawa, A., A. Yamamoto, N. Umino, S. Miura, S. Horiuchi, D. Zhao, and H. Sato, Seismic activity and deformation process of the overriding plate in the northeastern Japan subduction zone, Tectonophys., 319, 225–239, 2000.
Kitajima, T., Y. Kobayashi, R. Ikeda, Y. Iio, and K. Omura, Terrestrial heat flow at Hirabayashi on Awaji Island, south-west Japan, The Island Arc, 10, 318–325, 2001.
Lachenbruch, A. H., Crustal temperature and heat production: Implications of the linear heat-flow relation, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 3291–3300, 1970.
National Astronomical Observatory (ed.), Rika Nenpyo (Chronological Scientific Tables), 1058 pp., 1998 (in Japanese).
Sibson, R., Fault zone models, heat flow, and the depth distribution of earthquakes in the continental crust of the United States, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 72, 451–463, 1982.
Stein, C. A., Heat flow of the Earth, in Global Earth Physics, A Handbook of Physical Constants, edited by T. J. Ahrens, pp. 144–158, American Geophysical Union, 1995.
Tanaka, A. and H. Ito, Temperature at the base of the seismogenic zone and its relationship to the focal depth of the western Nagano Prefecture area, J. Seism. Soc. Japan, 55, 1–10, 2002 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Tanaka, A., Y. Yano, M. Sasada, Y. Okubo, K. Umeda, N. Nakatsuka, and F. Akita, Compilation of thermal gradient data in Japan on the basis of the temperatures in boreholes, Bull. Geol. Surv. Japan, 50, 457–487, 1999 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Ueno, S., S. Hatakeyama, T. Aketagawa, J. Funasaki, and N. Hamada, Improvement of hypocenter determination method by Japan Meteorological Agency, Kenshinjiho, 65, 123–134, 2002 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Uyeda, S., Review of heat flow studies in the Eastern Asia and Western Pacific region. UESCAP, CCOP/SOPAC Tech. Bull., 3, 153–169, 1980.
Wessel, P. and W. H. F. Smith, New version of the Generic Mapping Tools released, EOS Trans. AGU, 76(33), 329, 1995.
Williams, C., Temperature and the seismic/aseismic transition: Observations from the 1992 Landers earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2029–2032, 1996.
Yamano, M., M. Kinoshita, and T. Yamagata, Heat flow distribution around the Japanese islands, Chishitsu News, 517, 12–19, 1997 (in Japanese).
Yano, Y., A. Tanaka, M. Takahashi, Y. Okubo, M. Sasada, K. Umeda, and N. Nakatsuka, Geothermal gradient map of Japan, Geological Survey of Japan, 1999 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Zoback, M. D., R. Apel, J. Baumgartner, M. Brudy, R. Emmermann, B. Engeser, K. Fuchs, W. Kesseks, H. Rischmuller, F. Rummel, and L. Vernik, Upper crustal strength inferred from stress measurements to 6 km depth in the KTB borehole, Nature, 365, 633–635, 1993.
About this article
Cite this article
Tanaka, A., Ishikawa, Y. Temperature distribution and focal depth in the crust of the northeastern Japan. Earth Planet Sp 54, 1109–1113 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03353310
- Thermal Gradient
- Focal Depth
- Thermal Structure
- Seismogenic Zone
- Japanese Island