Special Issue: Slip and Flow Processes in and below the Seismogenic Region
- Open Access
Elastic property of damaged zone inferred from in-situ stresses and its role on the shear strength of faults
Earth, Planets and Space volume 54, pages 1181–1194 (2002)
The Nojima fault in Hyogo prefecture, Japan, ruptured during the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake (MJMA = 7.3). The stress measurements at sites close to this fault have revealed that the direction of the largest horizontal stress is almost perpendicular to the strike of this sub-vertical fault and that, in the zone within about 100 m from the fault core axis, the ratio of the largest shear stress to the normal stress is significantly small compared with that of the outside. It is thus the logical consequence that the principal stress outside the zone tends to direct perpendicularly to the fault plane. A model called the fracture process model is introduced for the relationship between fracture strength and elastic property of rocks. Making use of this model on the assumption that the observed shear stress equilibrates to the shear strength of damaged zone, it is found that the elastic wave velocities estimated from the stress well explain the observed velocities of damaged zone. This model suggests further that the friction coefficient of fault can be smaller than 0.15 due to the characteristic deformation of damaged zone and that the pressurized fluid is not essential for the formation of weak faults.
Awata, Y., K. Mizuno, Y. Sugiyama, R. Imura, K. Shimokawa, K. Okumura, and E. Tsukuda, Surface fault ruptures on the northwest coast of Awaji Island associated with the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake of 1995, Japan, Zisin 2, 49, 113–124, 1996 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Barton, C. A., M. D. Zoback, and D. Moos, Fluid flow along potentially active fault in crystalline rock, Geology, 23, 683–686, 1995.
Brune, J. N., T. L. Henyey, and R. F. Roy, Heat flow, stress and rate of slip along the San Andreas fault, California, J. Geophys. Res., 74, 3821–3827, 1969.
Byerlee, J., Friction of rocks, Pure and Appl. Geophys., 116, 615–626, 1978.
Chester, F. M., J. P. Evans, and R. L. Biegel, Internal structure and weakening mechanisms of the San Andreas fault, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 771–786, 1993.
Coyle, B. J. and M. D. Zoback, In situ permeability and fluid pressure measurements at ~2 km depth in the Cajon Pass research well, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15, 1029–1032, 1988.
Eshelby, J. D., The determination of the elastic field of an ellipsoidal inclusions, and related problems, Proc. Roy. Soc. Ser. A, 241, 376–396, 1957.
Feng, R. and T. V. McEvilly, Interpretation of seismic reflection profiling data for the structure of the San Andreas fault zone, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 73, 1701–1720, 1983.
Freudenthal, A. M., Statistical approach to brittle fracture, in Fracture, An Advanced Treatise, II, edited by H. Liebowitz, pp. 591–619, Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, London, 1968.
Geographical Survey Institute, The horizontal strain in Japan, II. 1994–1883, Technological data of Geographical Survey Institute, F-1_No. 10. Geographical Survey Institute, Tsukuba, 1997.
Handin, J., R. V. Hhager, Jr., M. Friedman, and J. N., Feather, Experimental deformation of sedimentary rocks under confining pressure: Pore pressure tests, Bull. Am. Soc. Petrol. Geol., 47, 717–755, 1963.
Hill, R., New derivation of some elastic extemum principles, in Progress in Applied Mechanics, The Prager Anniversary Volume, pp. 99–106, MacMillan, New York, 1963.
Huenges, E., J. Erzinger, J. Kück, B. Engeser, and W. Kessels, The permeable crust: Geohydraulic properties down to 9101 m depth, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18,255–18,265, 1997.
Iio, Y., Frictional coefficient on faults in a seismogenic region inferred from earthquake mechanism solutions, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5403–5412, 1997.
Ikeda, R., Y. Iio, and K. Omura, In-situ stress measurements in NIED boreholes in and around the fault zone near the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, Japan, The Island Arc, 10, 252–260, 2001.
Ito, H., Y. Kuwahara, T. Miyazaki, O. Nishizawa, T. Kiguchi, K. Fujimoto, T. Ohtani, H. Tanaka, T. Higuchi, S. Agar, A. Brie, and H. Yamamoto, Structure and physical properties of the Nojima fault, by the active fault drilling, Butsuri-Tansa, 49, 522–535, 1996 (in Japanese).
Ito, H., Y. Kuwahara, and O. Nishizawa, Stress measurements by the hydraulic fracturing in the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake source region, in Rock Stress, edited by K. Sugawara and Y. Obara, pp. 351–354, A. A. Balkema., Rotterdam, 1997.
Jones, L. M., Focal mechanisms and the state of stress on the San Andreas Fault in southern California, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 8869–8891, 1988.
Kuwahara, Y. and H. Ito, Deep structure of the Nojima fault by trapped wave analysis, Proc. Int. W/S on the Nojima fault core and borehole data analysis, Nov. 22–23, Tsukuba, Japan, (GSJ Interim Rep. No. EQ/00/1: USGS Open-file Rep. 00–129), 283–289, 1999.
Li, Y.G., J. E. Vidale, K. Aki, F. Xu, and T. Burdette, Evidence of shallow fault zone strengthening aftr the 1992 M7.4 Landers, California, Earthquake, Science, 279, 217–219, 1998.
Li, Y.-G., K. Aki, J. E. Vidale, and M. G. Alvarez, A delineation of the Nojima fault ruptured in the M7.2 Kobe, Japan, earthquake of 1995 using fault zone trapped waves, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 7247–7263, 1998.
Li, Y.-G., J. E. Vidale, K. Aki, and F. Xu, Depth-dependent structure of the Landers fault zone from trapped waves generated by aftershocks, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6237–6254, 2000.
Matsushima, S., Variation of the elastic wave velocities of rocks in the process of deformation and fracture under high pressure, Disas. Prevention Res. Inst. Kyoto Univ., Bull, 32, 2–8, 1960.
McGarr, A., M. D. Zoback, and T. C. Hanks, Implications of an elastic analysis of in situ stress measurements near the San Andreas Fault, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 7797–7806, 1982.
Nishigami, K., Investigation of deep structure of active faults using scattered waves and trapped waves, Seismogenic Process Monitoring, edited by H. Ogasawara, T. Yanagidani, and M. Ando, pp. 245–256, Balkema, Rotterdam, 2000.
Norris, A. N., A differential scheme for the effective moduli of composites, Mechanics of Materials, 4, 1–16, 1985.
Oppenheimer, D. H., P. Reasenberg, and R. W. Simpson, Fault plane solutions for the 1984 Morgan Hill, California, earthquake sequence: Evidence for the state of stress on the Calaveras Fault, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 9007–9027, 1988.
Paterson, M. S., Experimental Rock Deformation-Brittle Field, 254 pp., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1978.
Sato, N., Estimation of stresses in the vicinity of the Nojima fault, Awaji Is., Hyogo Pref. Japan, from core samples, Master thesis, Tohoku Univ., 87 pp., 1999 (in Japanese).
Sato, N., Y. Yabe, K. Yamamoto, and T. Hirasawa, Stresses at sites close to the Nojima earthquake fault estimated from core samples: III, Prog. Abst. Seism. Soc. Japan, 1999 Fall Meeting, C14, 1999 (in Japanese).
Sibson, R. H., F. Robert, and K. H. Poulsen, High-angle reverse faults, fluid-pressure cycling, and mesothermal gold-quartz deposits, Geology, 16, 551–555, 1988.
Tanaka, H., N. Tomida, N. Sekiya, Y. Tsukiyama, K. Fujimoto, T. Ohtani, and H. Ito, Distribution, deformation and alteration of fault rocks along the GSJ core penetrating the Nojima fault, Awaji Island, Southwest Japan, in Proc. Int. W/S on the Nojima fault core and borehole data analysis, edited by H. Ito, K. Fujimoto, H. Tanaka, and D. Lockner, GSJ Interrim Rep., No. EQ/00/1, USGS Open-file Report 00–129, 81–101, 1999.
Tsukahara, H., R. Ikeda, and K. Yamamoto, In situ stress measurements in a borehole close to the Nojima Fault, The Island Arc, 10, 261–265, 2001.
Watt, J. P., G. F. Davices, and R. J. O’Connell, The elastic properties of composite materials, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. Res., 14, 541–563, 1976.
Yamamoto, K., Theoretical determination of effective elastic constants of composite and its application to seismology, Doctoral thesis, Tohoku Univ., 199 pp., 1980.
Yamamoto, K., Strength distribution of microfracture elements in granites under compression test, in Proc. 3rd SEGJ/SEG Symp., pp. 327–334, Soc. Exploration Geophys. Jpn., Tokyo, 1995.
Yamamoto, K., Estimation of fracture stress for intact rocks and possibility of long-term earthquake prediction, Zisin 2, 50, Sup. 169–180, 1998 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Yamamoto, K. and Y. Yabe, Stresses at sites close to the Nojima Fault measured from core samples, The Island Arc, 10, 266–281, 2001.
Yamamoto, K., M. Kosuga, and T. Hirasawa, A theoretical method for determination of effective elastic constants of isotropic composites, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophysics, 28, 47–67, 1981.
Yamamoto, K., Y. Kuwahara, N. Kato, and T. Hirasawa, Deformation rate analysis: A new method for in situ stress estimation from inelastic deformation of rock samples under uni-axial compressions, Tohoku Geophys. Journ. (Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5), 33, 127–147, 1990.
Yamamoto, K., N. Sato, and Y. Yabe, Strength of fault as inferred from the stresses measured in the vicinity of the Nojima fault (Extended abstract), Tohoku Geophys. Journ. (Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5), 36, 272–290, 2001.
Zoback, M. D. and J. H. Healy, In situ stress measurements to 3.5 km depth in the Cajon Pass Scientific Research Borehole: Implications for the mechanics of crustal faulting, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 5039–5057, 1992.
Zoback, M. D. and J. Townend, Implication of hydrostatic pore pressures and high crustal strength for the deformation of intraplate lithosphere, Tectonophys., 336, 19–30, 2001.
Zoback, M. D. et al., New evidence on the state of stress of the San Andreas fault system, Science, 238, 1105–1111, 1987.
About this article
Cite this article
Yamamoto, K., Sato, N. & Yabe, Y. Elastic property of damaged zone inferred from in-situ stresses and its role on the shear strength of faults. Earth Planet Sp 54, 1181–1194 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03353319
- Shear Strength
- Fault Plane
- Hydraulic Fracture
- Damage Zone
- Tensile Crack