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Table 1 Typical example for global simulations of solar system bodies with various simulation techniques

From: A high-resolution global Vlasov simulation of a small dielectric body with a weak intrinsic magnetic field on the K computer

Technique MHD Ion-electron multi-fluids Hybrid PIC Full PIC Full Vlasov
Size of body (radius) Huge (scaleless) Large (approximately 20 d i ) Large (approximately 20 r i ) Small (approximately 20 λ De ) Medium (approximately 20 r e )
Charge separation/accumulation No Yes No Yes Yes
Ion gyro motion No No Yes Yes Yes
Numerical noise Low Low High High Low
Computational cost Low Low Medium High Huge
Parallelization Easy Easy Difficult Difficult Easy
  1. The spatial scales d i , r i , λ De , and r e represent ion inertial length, gyro radius of thermal ions, electron Debye length, and gyro radius of thermal electrons, respectively.