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Table 1 Summary of signals and changes prior to phreatic eruptions

From: Understanding and forecasting phreatic eruptions driven by magmatic degassing

Volcano and dates Observed signal (s) Elapsed time between first appearance of signal and eruption Date of eruption Eruption type Eruption forecast? Inferred processes Sources of data
Nevado del Ruiz 1985 Banded tremor 7 days 11-Sep-85 1 No Injection of magmatic gas into the hydrothermal system Martinelli (1990)
Tremor 3 days 13-Nov-85 1? No Magmatic eruption Voight (1990)
Aso 1994–1995 VLP events 350–400 s Various 1 Possibly Injection of magmatic gas into the hydrothermal system Kaneshima et al. (1996)
Ontake 2007 Inflation + VT swarms ~ 3 months Mid-late March 2007 1 No Magma intrusion followed by injection of magmatic gas into the hydrothermal system Nakamichi et al. (2009)
VLP event ~ 2 months      
LP signals, tremor ~ 1–1.5 months      
Ontake 2014 VT seismicity ~ 1 month 27-Sep-14 1 No Injection of magmatic gas into the hydrothermal system Terakawa et al. (2016)
LP seismicity ~ 20 days      Kato et al. (2015)
VLP event 25 s      Maeda et al. (2015a)
He isotopes Months to years      Sano et al. (2015)
Ruapehu 2007 Decrease in lake temperature ~ 7 months 25-Sep-07 1 No Injection of magmatic gas into the hydrothermal system Christenson et al. (2010)
Decrease in SO2 flux ~ 3 months      
Increase in CO2/SO2 ~ 5 months      
Negative lunar-seismic correlation ~ 3 months      Girona et al. (2018)
Turrialba 2014 LP seismicity ~ 2 weeks 29-Oct-14 1 Possibly Injection of magmatic gas into the hydrothermal system de Moor et al. (2016a)
VT seismicity       de Moor et al. (2017b)
Increase in CO2/SO2       
Decrease in SO2 flux       
Poás 2014, 2017 Decrease in CO2/ SO2 Days 2014 (60 eruptions) 2 No Pulses of magmatic gas into the shallow hydrothermal system de Moor et al. (2016b)
Increase in SO2 flux 1–2 weeks 2017 1 Possibly Destruction of hydrothermal seal de Moor et al. (2017c)
VT seismicity ~ 2 weeks      
LP seismicity ~ 2 weeks      
White Island 2012 Increased spring emissions ~ 2 years 2012–2013 2 No Increased magmatic degassing Christenson et al. (2017)
Increase in SO2 flux       
Decrease in CO2/SO2       
Deflation       
Increased RSAM       
Rincón de la Vieja 2014, 2017 Decrease in CO2/SO2 Months? Sept–Oct 2014 2 No Increased magmatic degassing de Moor et al. (2016b)
Decrease in H2S/SO2 Weeks Feb–March 2017 2 No Increased magmatic degassing Battaglia et al. (2017)