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Table 1 Substorms investigated in this study

From: Proton auroras during the transitional stage of substorm onset

Date Arc MLAT MSP arc elev. T0 (UT) T1 (UT) Proton aurora instrument Electron aurora instruments
2008-03-05 66.2° 81.9° 06:03:33 06:06:51 GILL MSP GILL THEMIS ASI
       GILL MSP
2010-04-15 67.2° 86.8° 05:55:06 05:57:09 FSMI MSP FSMI THEMIS ASI
       FSMI MSP
2011-04-21 66.6° 53.6° 05:07:33 05:08:51 GILL MSP GILL THEMIS ASI
       GILL MSP
2011-10-02 66.6 53.8° 04:55:30 04:57:33 GILL MSP GILL THEMIS ASI
       GILL MSP
2013-03-09 66.9 70.5° 07:07:12 07:08:18 FSMI MSP FSMI THEMSI ASI
       FSMI MSP
2013-10-07 65.8° 35.9° 06:16:06 06:18:36 FSMI MSP FSMI THEMIS ASI
       FSMI MSP
2014-03-03 64.8° 45.4° 06:15:39 06:17:12 GILL MSP GILL THEMIS ASI
       GILL MSP
2015-03-18 61.5 82.7° 07:23:03 07:25:15 ATHA FESO ATHA THEMIS ASI
2016-08-10 64.1 < 20° 06:14:33 06:15:54 ATHA FESO ATHA Rainbow ASI
       FSMI THEMIS ASI
2016-09-08 63.4 27.7° 06:03:30 06:04:51 ATHA FESO ATHA Rainbow ASI
       FSMI THEMIS ASI
2016-09-29 63.1° 34.8° 04:24:18 04:25:18 ATHA FESO ATHA THEMIS ASI
2016-12-09 64.7° < 20° 07:01:33 07:03:15 ATHA FESO ATHA THEMIS ASI
       FSMI THEMIS ASI