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Table 3 Time-integrated energy values of solar wind energy dissipated through Joule heating calculated from OpenGGCM model output and that estimated from the modified form of Ahn’s empirical relation based on the IL index, for substorms in St. Patrick’s Day 2015 geomagnetic storm

From: Global and local Joule heating during substorms in St. Patrick’s Day 2015 geomagnetic storm

Event no. Ionospheric Joule heating
(Open GGCM model) 1015 J (Empirical relation based on IL index) 1015 J
1 21.63 2.0 (1.71)
2 3.75 2.2 (1.81)
3 2.18 1.2 (0.91)
4 0.68 0.59 (0.31)
5 3.37 1.34 (1.32)
  1. The values within brackets represent ionospheric Joule heating estimated from Ahn’s empirical relation based on the AL index