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Fig. 3 | Earth, Planets and Space

Fig. 3

From: Viscosities of the crust and upper mantle constrained by three-dimensional GPS rates in the Sichuan–Yunnan fragment of China

Fig. 3

Observed vertical rates deduced by the three-dimensional GPS rates. a GPS horizontal rates field from Pan et al. (2018) including the data from the continuous and campaign stations. b Dilatational rates deduced by the GPS horizontal rate field using least-squares collocation (LSC) (Wu et al. 2011). c Vertical rates (\(V_{\text{t}}\)) transferred from the dilatational rates. LMS denotes the Longmen Shan area. EHS denotes Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. d Vertical rates (\(V_{\text{c}}\)) due to rheological deformation. \(V_{\text{t}}\) is subtracted from \(V_{\text{o}}\) (Fig. 2d) to obtain \(V_{\text{c}}\). The meaning of the symbols and lines is the same as in Fig. 2

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