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Table 3 Planar fitting of gravimetric geoid models to GNSS/leveling geoid heights at 971 benchmarks for EGM2008, JGEOID2008, and this study

From: Refinement of a gravimetric geoid model for Japan using GOCE and an updated regional gravity field model

ModelPlanar fit
Tilt (ppm)Azimuth (°)SD (cm)
EGM20080.143426.56
JGEOID20080.08446.85
This study0.113524.06
  1. Tilt represents the tilt of the fitted plate (unit: parts per million), Azimuth represents the angle of tilted trend from north, and SD indicates the standard deviation of geoid difference with respect to the fitted plane